A Little Known Medieval Gem of the Piedmont  — Saluzzo

A Little Known Medieval Gem of the Piedmont — Saluzzo

In the Piedmont, the northwestern corner of Italy, the ancient hillside city of Saluzzo takes visitors along a maze of charming cobble streets, all the way back to the Middle Ages when it was the seat of the independent Marquisate of the same name. For centuries, specifically from 1125 to 1548, its dynasty of fourteen Marqueses were able to keep at bay the aggressive attentions of their much more powerful neighbors: the House of Savoy, the French monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire.

La Castiglia

La Castiglia di Saluzzo.

A military stronghold was required to support such a feat. Built between 1271 and 1286 behind the original city wall and dominating the entire town, the Castiglia di Saluzzo was originally equipped with four bastions, a moat and a drawbridge. However, in 1492,  Marquis Ludovico II (1438-1504) radically renovated the fortress upon the arrival of his French second wife, Marguerite de Foix-Candale (1473-1536). It’s not clear how much  the addition of a garden and the massive round tower rising above its ancient walls improved upon it. Suffice it to say that centuries later, the still foreboding castle served as a prison from 1825 to 1992. 

Today La Castiglia is home to the Museum of Chivalry and the Museum of Prison Memory, which commemorates the two main functions carried out by the building.

The Church of San Giovani

The Flamboyant Gothic interior of the Church of San Giovani.

Until the construction of the cathedral in the early 16th century, la Chiesa di San Giovani was the most important place of worship in the city. Built by the Dominicans in 1330 on the site of a chapel dedicated to Saint John since 1281, it was finally completed in 1504. Its sober exterior, including the square bell tower with five rows of mullioned windows and octagonal spire added in 1376, harmoniously integrates into the mediaeval context of the ancient city. Meanwhile the interior is a fine example of Flamboyant Gothic architecture. Among its most notable elements are the burial chapel of the Marquises, and especially the white marble monument of the Marquis Ludovico II (circa 1508) by French master Antoine Le Mortorier, and the monumental gilded wood tabernacle at the high altar (circa 1610).

The cloister of the Church of San Giovani.

In the adjoining cloister, commissioned in 1466 by Marquis Ludovico I, a terracotta stonework representing the Visitation is placed on the wall next to the entrance. The capitals of the gallery’s pillars feature the coates of arms of the most prominent families in Saluzzo. The cloister also houses the Cavassa Chapel, with the funeral monument of the General Administrator of the Marquisate, Galeazzo Cavassa (1483) and some well preserved frescoes.

Casa Cavassa

The Renaissance loggia of features Grisaille frescoes.

For all the medieval charm of Saluzzo, the city’s undisputed gem is Casa Cavassa, the Renaissance-style mansion that was the residence of Caleazzo Cavassa and his son Francesco, both General Administrators of the Marqueses of Saluzzo. While traces of a medieval building can be found in the basements and in three ogive windows of the facade, Francesco completely redesigned the property in the early 16th century, in the early Renaissance-style that was becoming prevalent in Northern Italy.

View of the city from the rear of Casa Cavassa.

The new construction took advantage of the sloping terrain to extend over six floors, three underground, including cellars, kitchens and servants quarters, while the reception   rooms and private apartments were on the three upper floors. Here the richly decorated rooms feature ornately painted wooden ceilings, frescoed walls and loggias.


Magnificent painted coffered ceilings grace the reception rooms.

The building fell into serious disrepair throughout the following centuries, until it was purchased by Marquis Emanuele Tapparelli d’Azeglio (1816-1890), an Italian diplomat and politician born in Turin. He set out to restore the mansion following the 19th century principle known as “completion according to style”: everything that didn’t date back to the Renaissance was removed and replaced by works of art and antiques dating back to the 15th  and 16th centuries. According to d’Azeglio’s will, the mansion became a museum upon his death, and the property of the town of Saluzzo.

“Our Lady of Mercy” (Hans Clemer. Altarpiece, 1499-1500).

Even today the white marble portal and the sculpted front door (circa 1520’s), attributed to the sculptor Matteo Sanmicheli from Lombardi, bear witness to the splendor of the mansion at the beginning of the 16th century. The walls of the internal loggia still boast Grisaille frescoes by Hans Clemer, a famous Flemish painter who worked in the Marquisate from 1496 to 1511. The paintings (1506-1511) depict seven of the famous Labors of Hercules. Underneath the balcony, above the mullioned windows, a frescoed decorative band portrays the signs of the zodiac. The itinerary of the visit consists of 15 rooms full of  remarkable frescoes, period furnitures and art collections, including the altarpiece “Our Lady of Mercy”, an incandescent masterpiece also by Hans Clemer, painted in 1499-1500.

Good to Know

  • Getting there—By Road: Saluzzo is about 60 kilometers (40 miles) or a 75 minute drive from the center of Turin via regional road SP 139 or SP 663. It is also accessible by bus from the Torino Esposizioni bus terminal with one connection in Villa Franca Piedmonte. There are several daily busses and the route takes approximately two and a half hours.
  • Getting around—Saluzzo is definitely best visited on foot. Comfortable footwear recommended.
  • Visiting—Museo Civico Casa Cavassa, Via San Giovani 5, Saluzzo is open Tuesday through Thursday, Saturday and Sunday from 10:00 am to 1:00 pm and 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm, and Friday 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm. Closed on Monday. Contact: Tel. + 39 0175 41455. E-mail. Confirming opening hours recommended. Note: published website was inoperational at the time of this writing.

Location, location, location!


Italy — The Many Faces of Turin

Italy — The Many Faces of Turin

Set in the shadow of the Alps, at the foot of a wooded hill on the bank of the Pô River in the northwestern region of Piedmont, Turin is the birthplace of many iconic Italian brands. Its varied claims to fame include FIAT cars (which stands for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino), Olivetti business machines, Lavazza coffee, Martini vermouth and Juventus football club.

The Palatine Gate opens onto an archeology park.

But before the 19th century made Turin the industrial powerhouse of Italy, the city had already been shaped by a rich historical past reaching back two millennia. Founded during the reign of Emperor Augustus (circa 9 BC), Turin has retained the checkerboard plan typical of ancient Roman cities, as well as the imposing Porta Palatina and adjoining remains of its Roman and medieval rampart, which now open onto a park filled with roman ruins.



The Golden Age of the Savoy

The streets pf the historic center are lined with arcades.

Then, in 1563, Emmanuel-Philibert transferred the capital of his powerful Duchy of Savoy from Chambéry to Turin, ushering a golden age for the Piedmontese city. Throughout the 17th and 18th  centuries, Turin grew under the influence of two great architects, Guarino Guarini (1624 – 1683) and Filippo Juvarra (1678 – 1736), who covered the city with grand palaces and imposing churches in a sober style that became known as Piedmontese Baroque. Along the straight streets of old Turin, lined with arcaded buildings (some 18 kilometers – 11 miles – of them), all constructions were required to adhere to a uniformity of style and materials dictated by the court architects. The result of this early urban planning is a unique inner city filled with elegant palazzi and stunning courtyards, remarkable for its discreetly aristocratic charm and serene atmosphere.

Piazza Castello is the centerpiece of Baroque Turin.

At the heart of it all, the Piazza Castello showcases the most emblematic monuments of Turin: the Palazzo Reale, which was the residence of the Dukes of Savoy from the 17th to the end of the 19th century and the Palazzo Madama. The latter, a remarkably heterogeneous building, sums up the city’s past. Here, behind with the sumptuous facade of the 18th century Baroque palace, the rear of the building remains an austere medieval castle anchored to Roman towers. Today the Palazzo Madama houses a rich museum of ancient art of the region..

Palazzo Reale is now a museum complex.

Meanwhile, the Palazzo Reale is now an extensive museum complex including the Royal Apartments, the Museum of Antiquities, featuring the archeology of Turin ,and the Galleria Sabauda, a showcase of the royal art collections amassed by the House of Savoy over the centuries, mainly Italian and Flemish painting (Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Tiepolo, Memling, Rubens, etc.). Also not to be missed is a walk through the spectacular 17-acre  (7-hectare) Royal Gardens.

Museum and Churches

The San Giovanni Battista Cathedral is a rare Renaissance monument in Turin.

Beyond the Piazza Castello, the city center is filled with museums, often housed in historic palaces, and grand churches, starting with the 17th century Church of San Lorenzo. Behind its austere facade, it houses a profusion of Baroque elements and a high cupola adorned with windows that flood the building with light. Behind it, one of the rare Renaissance buildings in Turin, the cathedral San Giovanni Battista and its campanile, is one of the rare Renaissance buildings in Turin. The famous Holy Shroud is kept there. A short distance away on the majestic Piazza San Carlo, reminiscent of Rome’s Piazza del Popolo, Turin has her own set of twin Baroque churches: San Carlo Borromeo and Santa Cristina.

The curved facade of the Palazzo Carignano is built entirely of exposed brick.

A ten-minute walk away, the sumptuous Palazzo Carignano is the most startling Baroque palace in the city. Designed by Guarini as the private residence of the Princes of Carignano, a cadet branch of the House of Savoy, it is entirely constructed in exposed bricks with a unique curved facade and double staircase atrium. The interior is known for its splendid frescoes and stucco decorations. Today it houses the museum of the Italian Risorgimento (Italian Revival), the 19th century period that lead to the political unification of the country. The museum exhibits various weapons, banners, uniforms, printed documents and manuscripts, and artworks of the period.

Another legacy of the greatness of the Savoys is the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum). Opened in 1824 and housed in the austere Palazzo dell’Accademia delle Scienze, this Turin institution houses the most important collection of Egyptian treasures outside Cairo.

The Mole Antonelliana

The central hall of the Mole Antonelliana.

Named after Alessandro Antonelli, the architect who designed it in 1863, the Mole Antonelliana is one of the most iconic sights of the city. A soaring 167 meters (550 feet) high, this monumental building has become the visual symbol of Turin. Originally intended as a synagogue, the Mole (pronounced Mo-lay) actually became a monument dedicated to King Vittorio Emanuele II. Today the Mole is internationally famous Museo Nazionale del Cinema (National Cinema Museum). Inside, the rooms are dedicated to various aspects of the cinema industry: cameras, poster collections, legendary directors and movie stars, video installations and much more. And a central glass elevator can take visitors high up the dome for a panoramic view of the city.

The Birthplace of Chocolate

Caffè al Bicerin has been service its chocolate and expresso creation since 1768.

Turin, has a long association with cacao delicacies. Cacao was brought to the city at the end of the 1500s when Catherine, daughter of Filip of Spain, married Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. At the European courts of the time, the food was consumed as a drink, vaunted for its invigorating properties. Then in 1776, also in Turin, Frenchman Doret developed the first machine for processing cacao and mixing it with sugar and vanilla. The solid chocolate bar was born. Meanwhile, the Bicerin, a new concoction made of espresso coffee, chocolate and whipped cream was fast becoming a favorite among Italian and European aristocracy and artists. Invented at Caffè al Bicerin in 1763, which sits on a tiny piazza across from the Santuario della Consolata (a minor basilica of central Turin) the drink is still served today to the delight of local and visiting chocoholics.

Good to Know

  • Getting there — By Air: Turin international airport supports scheduled flights from most European capitals. By train or road : Turin is easily accessible from all other Italian major cities. It’s about an hour’s drive on good mountain roads to the French border to the north and slightly more to the Mediterranean sea and the southern French border. The A6 Highway connect  Turin to Nice, France, while the A5 runs north to Geneva and Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Getting around — The center of the city is easily walkable. To explore farther afield, Turin also has an efficient, integrated system of buses, trams and metro.
  • Visiting — Palazzo Reale, including the Museum of Antiquities and the Galleria Sabauda, Piazzetta Reale, 1, 10122 Torino, is opened from Tuesday through Sunday from 8:30 am to 6:00 pm. Closed on Monday. Palazzo Madama , Museo Civico d’Arte Antica, Piazza Castello, 10122 Torino, is open Wednesday through Monday from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm.  Closed on Tuesday. Egyptian Museum, Via Accademia delle Scienze, 6, 10123 Torino, is open Tuesday through Sunday from 9:00 am to 6:30 pm and Monday from 9:00 am to 2:00 pm.  It also occasionally offers extended hours indicated on their website. National Museum of Italian Risorgimento, Via Accademia delle Scienze, 5 , 10123 Torino, is opened Tuesday through Sunday from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm. Closed on Monday. Mole Antonelliana, Via Montebello, 20, 10124 Torino, is open Wednesday through Monday from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm. Closed on Tuesday.

Location, location, location!


Hidden Gems of the Italian Alps  — Susa, Novalesa and Aosta

Hidden Gems of the Italian Alps — Susa, Novalesa and Aosta

Long before Savoy, the alpine region between what is now France and Italy, was to become an independent state in the center of Western Europe in the 11th century (for the next 700 years), the Romans had already identified its high mountain passes as a strategic route northward for its conquering armies and traders. While the region is now mainly popular with skiers, hikers and mountain climbers, it also offers visitors a surprising number of well-preserved Roman sites, and the timeless little mountain towns that grew from them.

Strategic Susa

The Arch of Augustus celebrates a peace treaty between Rome and the Gauls.

About 30 minutes after road signs indicate that we have crossed the border from France into Italy, we reach Susa. Originally established by the Celts in 500 BC, at the confluence of two mountain streams, it has been a crossroads of many transalpine itineraries between Italy and France ever since. And it is still known for its considerable Roman and medieval heritage.



The Porta Savoia is the point of entry to the Medieval town.

Its most important Roman ruins are the remarkably well preserved Arch of Augustus, built in 8 BC to celebrate a peace treaty between Rome and the Gauls, parts of the adjacent Roman baths, the nearby the amphitheater and aqueduct. The restored 2nd century amphitheater is now used for live performances. The imposing Porta Savoia, also with its origins in Roman times, was substantially rebuilt in the Middle Ages, and remains the point of entry to the Medieval part of the town.



Medieval Memories

The Cathedral of San Giusto has retained outside frescoes,

The Middle Ages also contributed several monuments of note. Joined to the Porta Savoia, the 11th  century Cathedral of San Giusto, the Romanesque church which was once part of an abbey complex, has retained some frescoes on its outside walls, and its remarkable bell tower with six levels of mullioned windows. Inside, it also holds a few artworks from the 14th and 15th centuries and a baptismal font that predates the current church.

The Castle of the Countess Adelaide dominates the old town.

Perched on a rock spur on the west side of town, the 11th century Castle of the Countess Adelaide memorializes the most emblematic figure in the city. Her marriage in 1046 to Oddone (Count of Maurienne and Savoy) marked the beginning of the Savoy dynasty in Italy. Today the castle houses the local Historical Archives and the Civic Museum.




Novalesa Abbey

The Novalesa Abbey remains a working monastic community.

The Saint Eldrado chapel contains a unique cycle of Byzantine-style frescoes.

A short drive north from Susa, the Benedictine Novalesa Abbey was founded in the 8th century on the road commanding the Mont Denis Pass, which had become a major pilgrimage route from Canterbury to Rome. By the 11th century, it was one of the most important abbeys in Europe. 

The complex endured varying fortunes over the next millennium, but it remains an active religious community to this day. It includes a monastic building proper, the abbey church and four medieval chapels scattered on the surrounding grounds. Two of these chapels are open to visitors: the 8th century (restored in the 11th century)  Santa Maria Magdalena chapel with a painting of Mary with the Holy Grail, and the Saint Eldrado chapel.  

The interior of the latter is covered with a unique cycle of late 11th century Byzantine-style frescoes representing the lives of Saint Eldrado and Saint Nicholas. These are among the oldest surviving  images of St. Nicholas. It is considered one the most significant historic and artistic religious works of the Western Alps. 



Roman Aosta

We continue on to  Aosta, the northwestern most city in Italy and the principal city of the Aosta Valley, at the junction of the Great and Little St Bernard Pass routes.

The Roman walls of Aoasta have remained mainly intact.

While most widely known these days for its proximity to the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel (opened in 1965), Aosta has been settled since prehistoric times, and subsequently taken over by the Romans in the 1st century BC.  By 11 BC it was established as the capital of the Grey Alps province of the Empire.

The Porta Praetoria is a double gate flanked by towers.

Its massive defensive walls are preserved almost in their entirety, enclosing a rectangle of 724 by 572 meters (2,375 by 1,877 feet). They are 6.4 meters (21 feet) high, built of concrete faced with small blocks of stone.

Towers stand at the angles of the fortifications and others are positioned at intervals, with two at each of the four gates, for a total of twenty towers. Two of the city gates have remained intact, the most remarkable of which is the eastern gate, known as Porta Praetoria (1st  century AD). It  consists of a double gate flanked by two towers. Of its three arches, the large central one accommodated carriages, with on either side, smaller ones were for pedestrians.

Within the Walls

Roman towers still punctuate the skyline of Aosta.

The Medieval cloister of Santa Caterina.

The rectangular arrangement of the streets is modeled on the Roman plan dividing the town into 64 blocks. The main road, about 10 meters (33 feet) wide, running from east to west, divides the city into two equal halves. This layout makes it clear that the main purpose of the city was to guard the road..

The Roman theatre, of which only the southern façade remains, is 22 meters (72 feet) tall. The structure, dating from the late reign of Augustus, could accommodate up to 4,000 spectators. It was recently restored and has been used for live performances since 2011. A nearby amphitheater was also constructed within the walls under Claudius. However, its only remains are incorporated into the Medieval cloister of Santa Caterina.






The Cathedral

Renaissance frescoes decorate the portal of the Aosta Cathedral.

The Aosta Cathedral was originally built in the 4th century on the southern part of what was then the sacred area of the Roman Forum. In the 11th century, this Palaeo-Christian structure was replaced by a new one, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and Saint John the Baptist. Much of the Romanesque building can still be seen, including the basilica plan with nave and two aisles, the crypt, the two bell towers and the remaining part of a Pre-Romanesque set of frescoes on the church ceiling. Various architectural elements were reconstructed throughout the centuries, resulting in a rather interesting sampler of the evolution of religious architecture over the last millenium, to culminate with the Neoclassical facade we see today.

Good to Know

Getting There — While the route of  the alpine passes between Rome and France may not have changed much since Roman times, they are now broad and well paved modern roadways that make visiting the area by car the most effective solution.

Visiting — The Novalesa Abbey, Borgata San Pietro, 4, 10050 Novalesa (TO), is an active ecclesiastic community. Consult their website to schedule a visit, of  contact: Tel. +39 0122653210 , e-mail.

Location, location, location!


Novalesa Abbey


In Turin, Italy — Sarcophagi and Palazzi

In Turin, Italy — Sarcophagi and Palazzi

Who knew that the oldest major collection of Ancient Egyptian archeology and anthropology in the world was in Italy!

Statue of the craftsman Pendua and of his wife Nefertari. Limestone (New Kingdom)

The Musei Egizio (or Egyptian Museum) of Turin dates back to 1753, when an expedition funded by King Emanuelle III returned from Egypt with 300 artifacts from the Karnak temple complex. The collection grew with additional expeditions over the centuries. Today, with well over 30,000 artifacts, it is considered the second most important Egyptology collection in the world, after the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.

The pieces on display represent all periods and dynasties of Egyptian civilization from the Paleolithic and pre-dynastic periods to the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms, and the Ptolemaic and Roman eras.

A Pantheon of Divinities

colossal hard stone statues line the soaring galleries.

The vast galleries are filled with treasures ranging from votive statuettes in gold, bronze and basalt to gigantic stone statues. They represent the numerous gods and goddesses of the Egyptian pantheon such as Sekhmet, Ptah, Amen-Ra, Anubis, Horus and Bastet. Sculptures and stelae also memorialize the legendary Pharaohs such as Horemheb, the Ramesses, and Seti, and the powerful military and priestly elite class.

Smaller artifacts also offer moving glimpses of the everyday life of ordinary people in ancient Egypt. These include sandals, pottery shards decorated with erotic images, musical instruments, miniature funerary models, dresses, sewing needles, children’s toys, and even foods such as bread.

Millenia of Funerary Treasures

The New Kingdom tomb of royal architect Khan and his wife Merit revealed exquisite funerary treasures.

Thousands of years of diverse funerary rites practiced by ancient Egyptian civilizations are showcased here. Mummies include examples of the unbandaged dead of pre-dynastic Egypt (preserved as a result of the arid desert environment), as well as the iconic linen-bandaged mummies of the Old Kingdom, and the cartonnage masked mummies of the Middle and New Kingdom periods. Of exceptional note is the display of funerary and domestic items from the 1400 BC tomb of royal architect Kha and his wife Merit, including the exquisite gold-leaf and glass rendering of Merit’s portrait on her cartonnage sarcophagus.

The gold leaf portrait of Merit on her cartonnage sarcophagus..

Despite its longstanding history and its headquarters in the 17th century Palazzo delle Accademia delle Scienze, the museum offers the latest trends in scenography and immersive visitor experience. Remodeled in 2015 by Oscar-winning set designer Dante Ferretti, the 9,000 square meter (97,000 square foot) exhibition space spreads over four levels, three above ground and one below, organized in chronological order from the top, along a 2.5 kilometer (1.5 mile) circuit.

Palazzo Madama

The rear area of the castle retains its Medieval appearance.

Officially the Museo Civico d’Arte Antica (or Municipal Museum of Ancient Arts) since 1934, but still best known by its centuries-old moniker of Palazzo Madama, this museum traces the history of Turin from its Roman beginnings to the19th century.

In the 1st century BC the Romans established the strategic castrum (military defense complex) of Augusta Taurinorum, the present day Turin. The site of what would become the palace was then occupied by the main gate in the Roman wall. Two of its towers still testify to this original nucleus. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the gate developed into a fortified stronghold during the Middle Ages. It ultimately became the residence of the Princes of Acaia (a side branch of the Savoy ruling family), who in the 15tn century transformed it into the palace we see today, with two polygonal towers mirroring those of the Roman era, and a third tower in the central courtyard.

The Touch of the Madama

The grand Baroque staircase by Filippo Juvarra.

The name of the building, however, refers the Madame Royale title of two women, Marie Christine of France and Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours, who throughout the 17th century successively occupied the palace while serving as Regent for their respective minor sons (Charles Emmanuel II and Victor Amadeus II). They were the driving force behind an extensive modernization project that turned the old fortress into a baroque masterpiece, culminating in the construction of the grand staircase and the elegant facade by one of the most influential architects of the era, the Italian Filippo Juvarra.

Since 1934, the Palazzo has housed the city’s rich collection of Ancient Arts.

A Time-Travel Experience

The underground level of the Palazzo features rare ancient stoneworks, religious stoneworks.

The history of the palace is retraced along a four-floors itinerary starting with the Roman age foundations, the deepest ones now topped with a glass pathway that allows visitors to appreciate the massive construction beneath their feet. Important works exhibited in the underground rooms include sculptures, mosaics and finds from the early centuries of the Middle Ages: remarkable pieces of late Roman and Ostrogoth works in gold and silver; rare examples of Romanesque mosaic with black and white tiles and ancient stoneworks, such as four capitals originally from the cloister of Sant’Orso in Aosta.

Gilded spruce wood Antependium with Christ, the Virgin and Saints. Master of Courmayeur (early 12th century).

The ground floor is dedicated to the Gothic era, including important religious wooden furnishings from superb altar pieces and chancel furniture, to free-standing polychrome sculptures. There is also a comprehensive collection of illuminated manuscripts including a Bible of 13th century illuminated in Bologna, and a series of miniatures of great quality by the Master of the Book of Hours from Modena, an artist exceptionally versed in the international Gothic style of the late 14th century.



Stepping up to Baroque

The Baroque Royal Apartments.

Then it’s up the grand Juvarra staircase to the sumptuous Baroque world of the Madama. Here, lavishly decorated Royal Apartments display 17th and 18th century artworks, and  the wonderful ceiling frescoes of the period. Then the third floor reveals a major collection of decorative arts: ceramics, works in ivory and gold, textiles, gilded glass, and paintings. Finally, visitors reach the Observation Tower — now mercifully accessible via elevator — for a panoramic view of the city and the surrounding countryside.


Good to Know

  • Getting there — Located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, in the foothills of the Alps, Turin is easily accessible by train or road from all other Italian cities. Its local airport, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the city, supports scheduled flights to most European capitals. It’s about an hour’s drive on good mountain roads to the French border to the north and slightly more to the Mediterranean sea and the southern French border.
  • Getting around — The center of the city is easily walkable. To explore farther afield, Turin also has an efficient, integrated system of buses, trams and metro.
  • Visiting —  The Egyptian Museum, Via Accademia delle Scienze 6, 10123 Torino, is open year-round, Tuesday through Sunday from 9:00 am to 6:30 pm and Monday from 9:00 am to 2:00 pm.  It also occasionally offers extended hours indicated on its website. The Palazzo Madama , Museo Civico d’Arte Antica, Piazza Castello, 10122 Torino, is also open year-round, Wednesday through Monday from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm.  Closed on Tuesday.

Location, location, location!