Masterpieces from the Guggenheim Foundation – in Aix-en-Provence, France

Masterpieces from the Guggenheim Foundation – in Aix-en-Provence, France

What happens when an exquisite Aix-en-Provence Baroque mansion and one of the leading Modern Art foundations in the world join forces to present a prestigious collection of late 19th and early 20th century European avant-garde art? A exceptional exhibition at the Hôtel de Caumont-Art Center: Masterpieces from the Guggenheim Foundation – From Manet to Picasso: The Thannhauser Collection.

Who were the Thannhausers?

To honor Aix’s native son, the exposition begins with The Man with Crossed Arms, Paul Cezanne. 1899, Post-Impressionist oil on canvas (Guggenheim Museum, New York).

Heinrich Thannhauser (1859-1935) and his son, Justin K. Thannhauser (1892-1976) were German gallerists and collectors, originally from Munich, where Heinrich opened his first gallery in 1909. More were to follow, opened by Justin in Lucerne, Switzerland (1919), Berlin (1927), and Paris (1937), making the Thannhausers important patrons, friends and promoters of the innovative artists who shaped Western art in the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century.

As a result of persecution by the Nazis, Justin and his family, who were Jewish, emigrated from Berlin to Paris in 1937. Then, after the fall of France and the German occupation of Paris, the family settled in New York in December 1940. Justin subsequently established himself as a prominent art dealer in the United States.

 

The Palazzo Ducale, seen from San Giorgio Maggiore, Claude Monet, 1908. Impressionist oil on canvas. (Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection)

After the tragic death of his two sons, Heinz, killed in combat in 1944 while serving with the U.S. Air Force, and Michel, deceased in 1952, followed by his wife Käthe in 1960, Justin decided to bequeath the major works of his prestigious collection to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.

Since 1965, these emblematic works have been one of the core elements of the illustrious Modern Art institution. And now, for the first time, the collection is leaving its permanent home, the famous Frank Lloyd Wright building on New York’s 5th Avenue, to travel back to Europe – returning, albeit very temporarily, a number of Provencal masterpieces to the region where they were painted more than a century ago.

Beyond the exceptional ensemble displayed throughout the intimate gallery space of the Hôtel de Caumont, the exhibition traces the history of the Thannhauser Collection and men who created, through archival documents illustrating their relationship with the artists, as well as other collectors and art dealers.

Justin and his Friends

Le Moulin de la Galette, Pablo Picasso, 1900. Post-Impressionsit oil on canvas. (Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection).

Having assisted his father in the Moderne Galerie since his teens, Justin then continued his education in Berlin, Florence and Paris, where he came to know key Parisian art dealers as well as the thriving artist community. Here he developped his taste for modern art and began demonstrating his support of the new generation of vanguard painters.  

As early as 1913, the Munich gallery helds one of the first retrospective of Picasso’s oeuvre in Germany. Justin wrote the catalogue’s preface. This exhibition marked the beginning of a lasting friendship between the two men, as reflected throughout the current show, starting with Le Moulin de la Galette. This is the most important work executed by Picasso during his first stay in Paris, where the nineteen year-old artist had come to visit the 1900 Universal Exhibition. This painting reflects young Picasso’s fascination with the Bohemian atmosphere of Parisian nightlife and the influence of Henri Toulouse-Lautrec.

Lobster and Cat, Pablo Picasso, 1965. Oil on canvas. (Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection).

Subsequent works illustrate the artist’s evolution to his melancholic Blue Period, followed by his Pink Period, and then to the phase when working in conjunction with Georges Braque, he develops the geometric lines, flat areas and deconstruction of forms that characterize cubism. Especially notable is Le Homard et le Chat (Lobster and Cat).

After the death of his first wife, Justin married Hilde Breitwisch in 1965. On this occasion, Picasso presented the couple with the painting. A dedication in red in the upper left corner of the canvas reads: “Pour Justin Thannhauser, votre ami, Picasso.

This uncharacteristically humorous work depicts a lively eye-to-eye conflict between the feline and the crustaceous: the bristling cat is glaring at the blue lobster, who appears determined to hold its ground on its many spindly legs. 

Champions of the Avant-Garde

Haere Mai, Paul Gauguin, 1891. Post Impressionist Primitive Symbolist oil on jute canvas. (Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection).

In the years preceding Word War One, the Thannhausers support of emerging artists extended to those based in Munich as well as abroad. They provided a venue to allow Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) group, a movement founded by Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Jawlensky and others who drew inspiration from sources as diverse as French Fauvism, Art Nouveau, Bavarian popular culture and Russian folklore to develop an art that was free of figurative constrains.

 

 

Yellow Cow, Franz Marc, 1911. Expressionist oil on canvas. (Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection).

 

While most conventional critics reacted to their works by calling them “absurdities of incurable madmen,” the Thannhausers demonstrated their open-mindedness by holding their first exhibition of the group’s founders in 1911-1912, followed in 1914 by the first major exhibition in Germany focused on Paul Klee, a Swiss artist also associated with The Blue Rider.

 

 

Montains at St. Remy, Vincent Van Gogh, 1889. Post-Impressionsit oil on canvas. (Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection).

 

In addition to the works from the Thannhauser Collection, the current exhibition is complemented by other pictures from the Guggenheim Museum, which although they are not part of the Thannhauser bequest, have been part of the history of of gallery or the collection and shed further light on it. Overall this spectacular exhibition offers the visitor a unique illustration of the evolution of European from Impressionism to Cubism.

 

 

If you are planning to be in Provence or even within detour distance of the area this summer, make sure to make to include Aix-en-Provence and the Hôtel de Caumont-Art Center to your itinerary. The exhibition can be seen until September 29th, 2019.

 

Good to Know

  • Getting There By train: there are frequent TVG (high speed train) connections throughout the day from Paris (3 hours) and Lyon (1 hour) as well as Geneva (3 hours) and Brussels (5 hours) to Aix-en-Provence. The TGV station is located 15 kilometers (9.5 miles) southwest of town, with a shuttle running every 15 minutes between the station and the bus terminal in the center of town. By plane: MarseilleProvence airport is 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) southwest of Aix, with numerous flights from Paris, London and other major European cities. It is served by the same shuttle bus as the TVG station.
  • Visiting –Caumont Art Center, 3, rue Joseph Cabassol, 13100, Aix-en-Provence, France.Is open daily from May 1 to September 30 from 10:00 am to 7:00 pm, with late opening hours on Friday until 9:30 pm, and from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm for the remainder of the year. Contact: message@caumont-centredart.com. Tel: +33 (0) 4 42 20 70 01.
  • If you miss this landmark exhibition, don’t despair. After Aix-en-Provence, the exposition will be on view at the Royal Palace cultural center in Milan, Italy, from October 2019 to February 2020.

 

Location, location, location!

Hotel de Caumont -Art Center

Bordeaux –  La Cité du Vin

Bordeaux – La Cité du Vin

The Celts settled it and called it Burdigala. Then came Julius Caesar who made it a thriving “emporium” of the Roman Empire and planted the surrounding countryside with vineyards. But it was the English who, a millennium later, got Bordeaux on its way to becoming the wine capital of the world.

The marriage between Bordeaux and England

It all began in 1152 when Eleanor, the heiress to the Duchy of Aquitaine, married the soon to be Henry II, King of England. Thus bringing her Duchy, which included Bordeaux, to the English crown for what was to be a tumultuous three centuries.

Bordeaux-vine harvest.

Bordeaux vineyards at harvest time.

Bordeaux wine was served at the royal wedding and soon became the beverage of choice of the royal household. Loyal British wine-lovers followed suite and a lucrative export market was born. By the late 1300’s, Bordeaux had become, after London, the second most populous city under control of the British monarchy. While the region reverted to the crown of France with the conclusion of the hundred years war (which actually lasted 116 years) in 1453, the demand for its fine wines endured. By the 18th century, Bordeaux, the region, was firmly established as the greatest producer of fine wines in the world. And Bordeaux, the port city on the Garonne river, prospered as the center of the wine trade. Yet throughout history, beyond these commercial ties, there was little connection between the city and wine producers that defined the region. Until the recent rise in popularity of wine tourism.

A Playground for Wine Lovers

Bordeaux-Cite dy vin.

La Cité dy Vin is dedicated to the universal heritage of wine.

Now La Cité du Vin (City of Wine) inaugurated in 2016 on the west bank of the Garonne at the edge of Les Chartrons, the historic center of the wine trade, brilliantly bridges the divide between the two Bordeaux. Designed by Paris architects Anouk Legendre and Nicolas Desmazieres, the grand, shiny swirl of a building is a unique cultural center dedicated to the universal heritage of wine, through the ages and around the world.

Borseaux-Terroir table.

A virtual vintner discusses the uniqueness of his terroir.

Step right in. The huge reception area includes a wine boutique, a wine cellar with offerings from around the world, a casual eatery and a wine-tasting bar. And for those who plan to explore the wine region, a booking desk where every kind of tour can be arranged. But resist the urge to sample or shop just yet. Head up the curving staircase where the fun begins. You are in the multi-sensory experience area, where every sense is stimulated through the latest museum technologies, designed by Casson Mann, the London firm who also created the Lascaux IV International Center of Rock Wall Art.

A Virtual World Tour

Bordeaux-world vineyards.

Giant screens project a tour of the world’s vineyards.

It begins with a dizzying virtual helicopter tour of the world’s vineyards on three giant screens, from China to Chile to Okanagan to Rangiroa (the latter two in British Columbia and French Polynesia respectively). It’s fascinating to see how vineyards adapted to landscapes and then redefined the land and local life. This experience is the genesis of my recent visit to Lanzarote. The show also reinforces the point that La Cité du Vin it is not museum of Bordeaux wine, but Bordeaux’s museum of world wine.

Bordeaux-buffet of the senses.

Experience the different aromas associated with wine at the buffet of the senses.

Drift over to a “terroir table,” where vineyards alter with the seasons, then virtual vintners spring to life, sharing what gives their terroir its identity and makes their wine unique. Browse from  Burgundy to the Mosel Valley to Tuscany before reaching the country of Georgia where a monk at the Alaverdi Monastery introduces one of the cradles of wine civilization. Then it’s a stop at the Buffet of the Five Sense, where from citrus, rose petal or chocolate to straw and wood shavings, you can smell the different aromas associated with wine through bell jars and curvy copper trumpets.

Bordeaux-tales of wine

One of the modules is a multi-media epic tale of wine.

Stick your head into a big aluminum bubble to hear and smell the fermentation process, or join a virtual dinner table and eavesdrop on a discussion about wine and food. And in the Bacchus and Venus room,  recline on a red velvet couch to watch a ceiling screen that projects the sights and sounds of love and wine – music and poetry, while rose petals seem to drop from the sky. There are 19 modules altogether, each one an interactive slice of wine culture.

Time for Tipple

Duck confit with guava sauce at Le 7 Restaurant.

But virtual travel can be hungry work. On the seventh floor,  Le 7 is an elegant restaurant with a panoramic view of the city and the Port of the Moon, the historic shipping port named for its broad moon-shaped curve in estuary of the river. Its refined menu of regional dishes varies with seasons and has already earned it mention in the 2018 Michelin guide “L’Assiette Gourmande.” Its 500-label wine list, with half of the selection from France and the other half from the various wine-producing regions of the world, is no less noteworthy. There is also a choice of 32 wines available by the glass.

View from the Belvedere – The Garonne River and the Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas (inaugurated in 2013).

Then to cap off the whole experience and even better views, head one more floor up to the Belvedere. This is where all visitors can enjoy a 360-degree panorama of the city, the river and the surrounding countryside while sipping a glass of wine selected from 20 different labels, five Bordeaux and 15 global wines (included in the price of admission). Whether you are a devoted oenophile or a casual wine tourist, this new shrine to wine is sure to peak your interest with its wit, whimsy and style.

Bordeaux-Place de la Bourse.

The Place de la Bourse is one of the most representative works of Classical French architecture and an iconic Bordeaux landmark.

Good to Know

  • Getting There– Bordeaux is located 600 kilometers (370 miles) southwest of Paris. By plane: Bordeaux-Merignac Airport is 11 kilometers (7 miles) west of the city center. It is a regional airport that serves mostly domestic flights as well as connecting flights from major European hubs. An express bus runs every 30 minutes between the airport, the central train station (Gare Saint Jean) and the city center. By train:There are several daily high-speed train (TGV) connecting Paris’ Charles de Gaulle Airport and Bordeaux Gare Saint Jean (4 hours), as well as near hourly connections between central Paris (Gare Montparnasse) and Bordeaux (3 hours). There is also a regular train service from most major cities in France and beyond.
  • Visiting La Cité du Vin ,134 Quai du Bacalan, 33300, Bordeaux, France. The exhibits area is open daily from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm. The restaurants and shops are open Monday through Saturday from 10:00 am to 11:00 pm and Sunday from 10:00 am through 7:00 pm. Contact: tel. +33 55 616 2020, email. contact form.
  • UNESCO Listing–The Bordeaux city center was recognized in 2007 on the UNESCO World Heritage List as “an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble” of the 18th century. This remarkably large area encompasses most of the historic city as well as the Port of the Moon and the opposite riverbank.

A Few Souvenirs

Location, location, location!

La Cite du Vin

Musee du Quai Branly, Paris – Peru before the Incas

Musee du Quai Branly, Paris – Peru before the Incas

Of the dozens major national museums in Paris, one of my personal favorites is the Musée du Quai Branly. Located in a lush garden environment a mere five-minute walk from the Eiffel Tower, it is unique for its collection of over 350,000 works dedicated to the indigenous art and cultures from Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas, ranging from the Neolithic period to the 20th century.

Paris-Branly facade.

In addition to its lush gardens, the museum also features a luxuriant vegetal façade designed by botanist Patrick Blanc.

Since only one percent of the collection can be displayed at any given time in its permanent and thematic temporary exhibits, each visit is a journey of discovery to remote corners of the planet and the long ago cultures that thrived there.

On a recent late fall afternoon, after enjoying a peaceful stroll around the lush wilderness created by noted French botanist and landscape artist Gilles Clement, I made my way toward the enigmatic building rising bridge-like above the gilded autumn foliage of the tree tops. I was on my way to pre-Columbian Peru.

Peru before the Incas

Paris-Branly Moche bottles.

The Moche civilization flourished from 100 to 700 AD. Their fine ceramic bottles speak of the importance of water as well as the flora and fauna of their food supply.

Doubtless because they had the misfortune of playing hosts to their uninvited Spanish visitors in the mid-15th century, the Incas and their Cuzco Empire have long been held as the crucible of pre-Hispanic Andean culture. While there were traces of previous pre-Columbian cultures going back as far as 1500 BC, these had long been eclipsed in the collective imagination by the powerful Inca narrative. But over the past three decades, extensive archeological excavations on the northern coast of Peru, especially at the Huaca site near Trujillo and at the royal tombs of Sipán, have provided a new insight into these ancient cultures, revealing how they, and  most notably the Mochicas, first laid the foundations for pre-Hispanic civilization over 1500 years ago.

Moche bottles (circa 300 to 400 AD) depicting marine life.

These revelations are the basis for the current exhibition, curated by archeologist Santiago Uceda Castillo, who has been directing the site excavations since 1991. “Peru before the Incas” takes visitors on an archaeological investigation into the origins and evolution of power and political systems within these ancient societies. Who held power? The celestial gods, the kings, the urban elite, the warriors, the priests and priestesses? And how did it manifest itself?

A Journey of Discovery

The exhibition spans time from the 8th century BC to the conquests of the Chimú by the Incas in 1470 AD. During that time, in the absence of a written language, successive civilizations left us a rich heritage of remarkable potteries and sculptures, gold, copper and silver ornaments, and funeral furnishings that illustrate their way of life and evolution.

Paris-Branly totems.

Moche bottles representing mountains and totemized animals.

The journey begins with a focus on the natural environment and everyday life of the area. Wedged at the foot of the Andes, the northern coast of Peru is one of the most arid deserts in the world. Owing to the combined presence of the cold Humboldt Current and the mountains, it virtually never rains. For the populations that settled in this inhospitable land, water took a central part in their rites and beliefs, as is represented in a stunning collection of ornate ceramic bottles that document the flora and fauna of their food supply, and their divinities. Theses works speak of a strong connection between the animal and human worlds. As man seeks to acquire the strength, reflexes or speed of specific animals, he deifies them or turns them into the totems of his community.

Divine Power

Paris-Branly God of Mountain.

The God of the Mountain is an anthropomorphic figure.

As the community develops and organizes into a state, totemism evolves into a more formal concept of the existence of superior beings, endowed with powers over the human condition. Temples are created, where the presence of these divinities can materialize. The main god, which will endure under various forms until the Inca period, is the God of the Mountain. An anthropomorphic figure with feline fangs, clawed hands and feet, and carrying a double specter, it represents the sun, fire and water that come from the mountain. It requires human sacrifices to ensure bountiful harvests and the prosperity of the community.

Ancestral divinities are worshiped at the clan level

Much power is also attributed to ancestral divinities. These more personal gods worshiped at the family or clan level are the link between men and the gods. Especially at the time of funerals, they are recipients of food, drink and metal objects offerings.

 

 

 

Earthly Power

Paris-Branly huacos.

Ceramic portraits represent priests and shamans.

Earthly power is bestowed by the gods to the king, who controls the armies and the state.Through a rich array of Huacos (portraits realized in ceramic), statues, emblems of function or power and personal ornaments, the exhibition document the various powers that support this theocracy: the priests and priestesses, the warriors, the shamans and healers.

 

 

Paris-Branly ornaments

Personal ornaments reveal the power achieved by women.

And surprisingly, the final part of the exhibition reveals the power held by an elite of women. At the time of the conquest, Spaniards had documented coming across some villages (called Capullanas) that were under the authority of women. But recent excavations at major Andes sites show that, in the pre-Columbian past, some women achieved much greater power, as proven by the presence in their funeral monuments of the emblems of their functions (including crowns and specters) and iconographic representations.

Even for the most casual “archeophile,” Peru before the Incas is a fascinating exhibit. The almost 300 artifacts on display cast a new light on the development of the early Andean cultures and demonstrate that in South America, the Incas are only the end point of an elaborate social evolution of native culture before the Spanish conquest.

Paris-Branly huacos/

Ceramic portraits (or Huacos) represent high functionaries.

A Few Souvenirs

Location, location, location!

Musée du Quai Branly

Homage to a Couture Icon – The Yves Saint Laurent Paris Museum

Homage to a Couture Icon – The Yves Saint Laurent Paris Museum

It all begins with paper dolls, for which the adolescent Yves Saint Laurent creates entire couture collections to the delight of his two younger sisters. This early passion for fashion design leads him straight to Paris, where he enrolls at the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture (school of the official trade association of French high fashion). His designs quickly gain the notice of Michel de Brunhoff, the then editor of French Vogue, who introduces him to Christina Dior. Monsieur Dior hires the barely the 19-year-old on the spot.

Paris YSL-sketches

The process of creation begins with sketching and swatches

For the next two years the young prodigy works at the side the master. He learns every aspects of creating a collection of some 200 designs, from original sketches to final fittings. He earns his mentors’ trust to the point that when Christian Dior suddenly dies of a heart attack in October 1957, it is revealed that he has named the young man as his successor. Yves Saint Laurent, age 21, is now artistic director of the most prestigious couture house in France. His first collection, unveiled four month later, is an immediate success. Side-stepping the cinched waists and voluminous skirts of the past decade, he introduces his Trapeze line of fluid dresses that flare from fitted shoulders. Its easy elegance appeals to active women everywhere. In retrospect, It changes the course of fashion.

His tenure at the House of Dior is cut short when he is replaced upon being drafted for mandatory military service in 1960.

Saint Laurent Paris

Paris YSL-1962 collection

The Saint Laurent Couture 1962 inaugural collection.

Fast-forward two years, and Yves Saint Laurent decides to create his own couture house with his partner Pierre Bergé. Saint Laurent Paris opens its doors at 30 bis, rue Spontini, in the tony 16th Arrondissement. His first collection in January 1962 is an unmitigated success. For the next twelve years he will continue to create here, inventing the modern woman’s wardrobe. The pea coat and trench coat of his first collection are followed by the first women’s tuxedo in 1966, then the safari jacket and the first women’s pants suit in 1968.

Paris YSL-iconic pieces.

A display assembles the emblematic early pieces.

These female adaptations of mainstays of the male attire are enthusiastically adopted, not only by the wealthy clients of the couture brand, but by all women. Now they can express their confidence and boldness while maintaining their femininity. For them, he opens his Saint Laurent Rive Gauche boutique in 1966. This first ready-to-wear store to bear a couturier‘s name paves the way for ready-to-wear fashion as we now know it.

5 Avenue Marceau

Paris YSL-jeweled jacket 1990.

Jeweled jacket from the Spring-Summer 1990 collection

In 1974, the Yves Saint Laurent couture house moves to a mid-19th century mansion at 5, avenue Marceau, a stone throw away from the Pont de l’Alma. For the next three decades, it remains a symbol of fashion excellence. In his fourth floor studio he creates designs that are then brought to life by the nearly two hundred tailors and seamstresses of the in-house workrooms.

 

 

Jewelry is displayed in the Cabinet de Curiosités gallery.

After Saint Laurent announces his intention to end his career in 2002, the building undergoes extensive renovations before re-opening its doors two years later as the Pierre Bergé – Yves Saint Laurent Foundation for the preservation of the couturier’s body of work. After functioning for a decade as exhibit space dedicated to fashion and then further extensive renovations, the mansion re-opens in October 2017 as the Musée Yves Saint Laurent, a permanent temple dedicated the French haute couture icon.

 

The YSL Museum

Paris YSL-Salon.

The visit begins in the Salon.

Today, the museum offers a unique opportunity to experience the designer’s world. The visit starts on the first floor, in the salons where clients once sat for private showings of his work or were received by their personal saleswomen when they came for fittings. Then we experience YSL’s process of creation, thoroughly documented with sketches, drawing and swatches, before entering a display of his most emblematic designs.

 

Paris YSL-Picasso evening.

The Picasso evening dress from the autumn-winter 1979 collection.

In addition to the highlights of his 1962 debut collection, there are also nods to collections that pay homage to an era, intricately decorated jackets, theatrical designs and stunning custom jewelry. The last gallery includes his iconic Mondrian dress, other dresses inspired by great painters, including Picasso, Van Gogh and Matisse, and his Africa and Russia-inspired ensembles.

 

 

Paris YSL-Studio2.

The studio is recreated in minute details.

Then on the fourth floor, we reach the heart of the house, his exactingly reproduced studio, filled with drawings, scraps of fabric, boxes of buttons and finished designs, which offers a vivid picture of the life and practices of a haute couture atelier. His signature glasses are still on the desk near his sketch pads and freshly sharpened pencils. His portrait by his friend Bernard Buffet hangs over the worktable. We can still feel the creative energy of the place. It’s clear that everything happened here.

 

Paris YSL-Home.

The projection room shows images of Saint Laurent’s home.

The visit ends in the screening room, where a multi-image diaporama brings Yves Saint Laurent, the man and his career to life, narrated by Pierre Bergé, his partner in work and life. Bergé was the driving force in bringing the museum to completion, but sadly died just four weeks before the inauguration on September 28, 2017. A second YSL museum opened in Marrakech, Morocco on October14, 2017 near the former home of the two men.

 

A Few Souvenirs

Location, location, location!

YSL Museum

Paris – Vermeer at the Louvre

Paris – Vermeer at the Louvre

The Louvre requires no introduction. With a world-famous collection ranging from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century, the once royal palace on the right bank of the Seine turned public museum in 1793 is a central Paris landmark that attracts close to ten millions visitors annually. I resolved long ago to refrain when ever possible from being one of them.

A Rare Landmark Exhibition

Paris-Louvre, Vermeer Woman at Virginal.

Johannes Vermeer, A Young Woman Seated at the Virginal. Oil on canvas. 25.2 x 20 cm. (9 7/8 x 7 7/8 in…), New York The Leiden Collection.

But there are times when accommodations must be made, and crowds braved. The entrancing new temporary exhibit: “Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting “ is one such moment. This landmark event offers the largest and most dazzling selection of Vermeer works I could even hope to see in one place. Twelve in all are on display, or one third of Johannes Vermeer’s entire known output. Among them are The Milkmaid, on loan from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam and poster image for the exhibition, the elaborately composed Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid, from the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin, and the exquisite miniature-like Young Woman Seated at a Virginal, from a private collection in New York.

 

The Masters of Genre

Paris-Louvre, Metsu Woman Letter.

Gabriel Metsu, Young Woman Reading a Letter. Oil on wood panel 52,5 x 40,2 cm. (20.7 x 15.8 in.), Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland, (Beit Collection)

More than 70 works by Vermeer’s fellow “Masters of Genre Painting” of the Dutch Golden Age, including Gerard ter Borch, Gerrit Dou, Pieter de Hooch, Gabriel Metsu, Caspar Netscher, Samuel van Hoogstaten, Frans van Mieris and Jan Steen are also included. These “Genre” painters were a group of artists who rejected the grand classic subjects of epic kings, Olympian myths, bloody battles and gory martyrdoms of traditional art to take us instead into the homes and everyday life of Dutch merchants of the time. With women as their central characters, they immortalized with delicate precision the mundane moments of domestic life from the servants’ perspective as well as their mistresses’.

 

 

The Genius of Vermeer

Paris-Louvre, Vermeer Lady Writing.

Johannes Vermeer, A Lady Writing. Oil on canvas, 45 x 39.9 cm. (17 3/4 x 15 3/4 in.), Washington D.C., National Gallery of Art.

By juxtaposing works related in theme, composition and technique, this exhibition also demonstrates how these artists inspired and rivaled each other. And it provides a unique opportunity to understand what makes Vermeer stand out from his Golden Age peers. For me, the genius of Vermeer is in his unique use a sensuously cool palette, the lapis blues and pale golden yellows, and the silvery northern light that gives his subjects an enigmatic mood. The other painters in this magnificent display represent similar scenes with exquisite artistry: women writing letters, playing the harpsichord or the lute, and servants engaged in domestic chores. But to me, only Vermeer looks beyond the concrete world depicted by his contemporaries, to create a more insightful mood that hints at the inner life of his subject. Several of them seem to interrupt their writing or music-playing to engage me and make me part of the moment.

Paris-Louvre-Vermeer Pearl Necklace,

Johannes Vermeer, Woman with a Pearl Necklace. Oil on canvas. 55 x 45 cm. (21 5/8 x 17 3/4 in.), Berlin. Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz.

Others seem fully absorbed in their own world. I find myself wondering: what is she thinking, this young woman in her elegant chamber, holding up a pearl necklace as she looks intently at herself in the mirror? Is she putting it on or removing it? What does this necklace mean to her? Or even more poignantly, who is this young milkmaid in the austere kitchen? In the gray light of dawn, her downcast eyes and expressionless face suggests tired concentration as she cautiously pours milk from an earthenware jug to prepare breakfast before the rest of the household begins to stir. I see the story of a long-ago life behind every Vermeer painting, a life I want to know more about.

 

 

Good to Know

  • Visiting – The  Musée du Louvre, 75001, Paris, France, is open Wednesday through Monday from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm, with night openings until 9:45 pm on Wednesday and Friday. It is closed on Tuesday, and on January 1, May 1 and December 25. Contact: tel. +33 (0) 1 40 20 53 17, e-mail. info@louvre.fr.
  • Getting there –There is easy public transportation from anywhere in Paris to the museum: metro station Palais-Royal/Musée du Louvre (lines 1 and 7) or bus stop right in front of the Pyramid ( lines 21, 24, 27, 39, 48, 68, 69, 72, 81, 95, and the Paris Open Tour bus).
  • Admission to Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting – This temporary exhibition, which runs from February 22 to May 22, 2017, requires a special admission ticket for a specific date and time. It must be purchased in advance through the museum’s on-line ticket office: on-line ticket office
  • If you miss the Paris viewing – Don’t despair. After its Paris star debut, the exposition, which was realized in partnership with the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin and the National Gallery of Art in Washington, will travel to the partner venues: National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, from June 17 to September 17, 2017, and National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. from October 22, 2017, to January 21, 2018.

Location, location, location!

Musée du Louvre