Andalusia Road Trip – Seville – A tale of two cultures

Andalusia Road Trip – Seville – A tale of two cultures

This is Day Two of our Andalusian adventure. We leave the peaceful vineyards of the Sierrania de Ronda at mid-morning for the two-hour drive to Seville, the vibrant capital and cultural center of Andalusia.

The Seville Cathedral seens through the Door of Forgiveness from the original Almohad mosque.

Throughout the region, displays of Catholic dominance compete for attention with the memories of several centuries of Moorish rule. This is especially apparent in Seville, where the largest Gothic cathedral in the world sits on the site of the great Aljiama mosque built in the 12th  century by the ruling Moorish Almohad dynasty, a few minutes’ walk from the Christian Kings’ magnificent Mudéjar-style Alcazàr palace.

 

The Seville Cathedral

Detail of a side chapel.

When Ferdinand III conquered Seville from the Moors in 1248, the mosque was immediately christianazied. But it was not until 1401 that the decision was made to build a proper Christian church on the site. Construction of the sprawling Catholic complex, which boasts 80 chapels and the longest central nave in Spain (135 meters or 443 feet) soaring to a breathtaking height of 42 meters (138 feet), lasted over a century.

The Christopher Columbus mausoleum sits in the nave.

Although still an active Catholic sanctuary, the cavernous cathedral is now overrun by visitors following a loosely arranged itinerary of its main attractions, starting with the mausoleum of Christopher Columbus. His coffin is held aloft by four figures representing the four kingdoms of Spain at the time of Columbus’ life: Aragon, Castille, Leon and Navarra. The massive late 19th  century monument by local sculptor Arturo Melida was originally installed in Havana, Cuba, before being moved to Seville in 1899 after Spain lost control of Cuba. (n.b. Havana and Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic also claim to hold his remains, but recent DNA tests confirmed that this tomb does hold Columbus – or one of his close relatives).

A Surfeit of Riches

The Gothic main altar is one of the most important polychrome wood structures of its time.

A few steps away, the Capilla Mayor (Main Chapel, or central nave) is dominated by its overwhelming gold-leafed Retablo of 45 carved scenes from the life of Christ. This huge Gothic main altar, regarded as the largest in Christendom, is one of the most spectacular polychrome wood structures of its time.Tourists of all nations stop to gape while their guides provide staggering statistics on the amount of gold involved.

The treasury holds an incredible wealth of silver reliquaries.

We follow the flow around the edge of the nave, checking out various chapels until we reach the Sala Capitular (Chapter House) with its magnificent domed ceiling mirrored in the marble design of the floor and its walls covered with fine Murillo paintings. Beyond it, the grandiose Sacrista Mayor (Great Sacristy) houses the treasury with its profusion of silver reliquaries, as well as the keys presented by the Moorish and Jewish communities to Ferdinand III upon the surrender of the city.

The minaret of the original mosque is now the bell tower.

However ambitious their Christian purpose, the new Castilian rulers did preserve a few elements from the Aljiama mosque. Most notably the minaret with its intricate brick pattern fashioned after Marrakech’s famous Koutoubia mosque now serve as the bell tower. This original Muslim bottom section is 51 meters (168 feet) high. Form the bell tower up, a seamless 16th century Renaissance addition raises the tower to 99 meters (325 feet). Topped with a distinctive bronze weather vane (giralda in Spanish), it has become the iconic symbol of Seville.

Citrus trees still gow in the courtyard where ritural ablutions once took place prior to Muslim worship.

The other remaining part of the former mosque is the vast Patio de los Naranjos, named for the orange trees that shaded the entrance courtyard where ritual ablutions took place prior to worship. In the center of the patio, a Moorish fountain incorporates a sixth century carved marble font, a surviving remnant of an earlier Visigoth church, which itself was leveled to make room for the mosque. On the north side of the patio, the Puerta del Perdón (Door of Forgiveness) is a stucco engraved horseshoe-shaped masterpiece also dating from the original Almohad mosque.

The Real Alcázar

The Alcázar retains elements of the original Almohad palace.

A few minutes’ walk from the cathedral, the Real Alcàzar (Royal Palace) is a unique complex of fortresses, palaces and gardens that has evolved over eleven centuries. It remains the official Seville residence of the Spanish royal family, making it the oldest royal palace still in use in Europe.

 

 

The Alcázar is built in the Mudéjar style.

The construction of the fortress began in the 10th century, during the reign of Caliph Abd al-Rahman (912-961). The complex was then enlarged and renovated throughout the city’s rich history. Beyond the fortification walls and the remains of a 12th century Almohad palace, all later work was carried out by Christian kings in the Mudéjar style – a post-Islamic style that remained strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship.

 

The Palacio de Don Pedro

The cupola of the Salon of the Ambassadors.

Also known as the Mudéjar Palace, the architectural masterpiece built by Pedro I (1334-1369) with its stunningly beautiful ceilings and elaborate plaster- and tile-work is the most spectacular of the entire complex. The Prince’s suite has a breathtaking gold ceiling intended to recreate a starlit night sky. The various apartments open through scalloped Moorish arches onto the exquisite Patio of the Maidens with its long central reflecting pool outlined by two sunken garden. The most famous of the public spaces is the Salon of the Ambassadors, a vast hall with a jaw-dropping Islamic-style cupola ceiling intended to represent the universe.

Magical Gardens

Almohad-style patios are arranged around bubbling fountains.

The Mercury Pond is inspired by the Italian Mannerist style.

The gardens are a major element of the Alcàzar. Spread across 6 hectares (15 acres) they have evolved through the centuries into three distinct areas that reflect the style of gardening of their respective eras while remaining the oasis of tranquility intended by the early occupants.

Closest to the palace, the ancient Almohad-style gardens are an inviting maze of tiled patios, bubbling fountains and secret corners, all connected by stairs and verdant arches. Then come the central Renaissance gardens, designed in the 16th century in the Italian Mannerist style. Their most famous elements are the Mercury Pond (named for the statue of the Roman god standing in the middle of it) and adjoining Grotto Gallery, which transformed a part of the Moorish fortifications into an upper loggia from which to admire the vast expanse of the gardens and the Charles V pavilion. The third area, created at the start of the 20th century on the former site of the property’s old orchard, is known as the English garden, and includes resident peacocks.

After a couple of hours spent making our way through the countless, extravagantly ornate rooms of the sumptuous palace, we especially enjoy exploring the fabulous gardens, spotting their countless fountains and generally relaxing in their relative peace.

Flamenco

El Arenal is one of Sevilles’ prestigious Flamenco venues.

Beyond its architectural masterpieces, an other multi-cultural artistic treasure of Andalusia is Flamenco – the complex fusion of song, dance and guitar music that tells the story of the Andalusian soul. The origins of Flamenco are much debated as this art form has been documented only for the past two centuries. Most of what we know has been transmitted in music and folklore. What is obvious it that it did originate in Andalusia when the area was under Moorish domination. The music and instruments were adapted over time by Christians, Jews and later Gypsies to become a hybrid form of expression to communicate their pain, oppression and passion.

El Arenal presents two nightly performances

Since the late 1960’s Flamenco has gradually evolved from local folklore to international celebrity, and Seville abounds with flamenco from bars, where the Flamenco “jam session” can be great – or not, to Tablaos.  There, nationally and internationally known artists perform professionally choreographed shows. With only one night to experience Flamenco on this trip, we go for the sure thing and book a table at Tablao el Arenal. Founded some 40 years ago by international flamenco star and Seville native Curro Veléz, it is located in a typical 17th century building that still channels the spirit of old Andalusian cafés. It has garnered a long-standing reputation for the quality of its performers, and also offers a dinner option with a fixed price, four-course, à la carte menu of Andalusian specialties prior to the 75-minute performance.

Our dinner and show advanced reservation scores us an amazing center front row table where we don’t miss a single step of the virtuoso footwork of the dancers. The show features 15 performers (guitarists, singers and dancers) and all are superb (sorry no photos allowed!). And yes, the meal is very nice too. Overall, the perfect evening to close our short visit to Seville, before leaving for Cordoba in the morning.

Good to Know

  • Getting around – The center of Seville is definitely a pedestrian experience. If like us you plan to arrive by car, jettison your vehicle in one of the underground garages at the edge of the historic center. Check  ahead with you hotel or short-term apartment management for recommendation of which parking to use.
  • Visiting –The Seville Cathedral is open for cultural visits on Monday from 11:00 am to 3:30 pm, Tuesday through Saturday from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm and Sunday from 2:30 pm to 6:00 pm. Tickets are available at the door usually with a relatively short wait.  If you also wish to visit the La Girlada (bell tower) and/or the roof of the cathedral, advanced tickets are imperative. Make sure to purchase them from the Seville Cathedral official website to avoid surcharges.
  • The Real Alcázar is open daily, October through March from 9:30 am to 6:00 pm and April through September from 9:30 through 8:00 pm. Unless you plan to visit late in the day (after all the busloads of tourists have departed) it is imperative to purchase advanced tickets – again directly from the Alcazar’s official website. A regular ticket will give you a line-free entrance to the palaces and the gardens any time during your chosen day.
  • The Royal Apartments (Cuarto Real Alto), should you decide to visit them, require that you purchase a separate ticket with a strict time-slot reservation. And be prepared to leave all your belongings, including cameras and cell phones – unless you are prepared to leave the latter turned off in you pocket – in lockers at by the entrance. Photos are strictly prohibited. The audio-guided tour takes 30 minutes, with security guards moving visitors along. Only 15 public rooms are opened to the public and although these have historic names referring to long-ago monarchs (i.e. Isabella of Castilla and Pedro I), most of the furniture and décor are from the 19th In my opinion, the visit is of little interest and not worth the constraint of adhering to the strict schedule.
  • Tablao El Arenal 7 calle Rodo, 41001, Sevilla. Contact: tel. +34 954 316 492 – open every night for from 6:00 pm to 11:30 pm with performances at 7:15 pm and 10:00 pm.  We found their dinner and show formula to be excellent value (75 Euros, or 84 U.S. Dollars per person at the time of this writing, beverages included).  Advanced reservations through their website strongly recommended.

 

Location, location, location!

Seville

Andalusia Road Trip – White Villages and Vineyards

Andalusia Road Trip – White Villages and Vineyards

Stretched across the tip of the Iberian Peninsula, Andalusia, the southern-most region of continental Spain, is a land of fascinating contrasts. Here, ancient cities dominated by grand palaces still bear the memory of their glorious Moorish past. Dazzling whitewashed Pueblos Blancos (White Villages) cling to the rugged slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountains. From flamenco to bullfighting to gazpacho, many of the cultural references that permeate visitors’ image of Spain originated here and remain woven into the fabric of everyday life.

Moorish fortresses and While Villages are sprinkled troughout the Andalusia landscape.

I never pass an opportunity to revisit this compeling region. Therefore, I was thrilled recently when my son, Lee Fuller, who had yet to discover the area, suggested that we meet there. We live on different continents these days, but once a year we make it a point to visit – each other and a different destination. With only ten days to introduce the many faces of Andalusia to him, a road trip was the best option, and destinations had to be ruthlessly curated, lest our holiday turned into a marathon.

 

Let the Adventure Begin!

The village of Mijas clings to its mountainside.

We coordinate our flights to meet at the busy Malaga airport, where we pick up our car and immediately head for the hills. Although the city has retained several Roman and Moorish landmarks, it has grown exponentially since the 1970’s into the pulsating gateway to the Costa del Sol. Here, drawn by the sundrenched beaches of the Mediterranean coast, throngs of vacationers from Northern Europe have spurred the development of sprawling concrete seaside resorts. Once picturesque fishing villages are now considered historic centers, brimming with storefront eateries, souvenir shops and guest houses. Therefore, we opt to give the shoreline a miss.

Mijas dawn.

We stay in Mijas Pueblo this first night, a short 30 minute-drive west from the airport. Once a typical whitewashed village tucked in the hills some 450 meters (1,500 feet) above sea level, it too is now a tourist haven, surrounded by gleaming white, gated resorts. But mindful of our jetlag and our newly rented vehicle, we stay in one of them, chosen mainly for the convenience of its underground garage. The next morning, however, we are rewarded with a lovely sunrise over the Mediterranean.

Dizzying Ronda

The Puente Nuevo soars high above the El Tajo Canyon.

It’s only 95 kilometers (60 miles) on a road that winds through spectacular mountain vistas between Mijas and Ronda, the largest– and most visited – of the famed White Villages of Andalusia. Dramatically perched at the edge of a sheer cliff, the town is split in half by the 150-meter (500-foot) deep El Tajo Canyon. The two sides were connected in 1793 by the Puente Nuevo (New Bridge), an engineering wonder soaring nearly 120 meters (400 feet) above the Guadalevin River.

Ronda titters on the edge of a deep chasm.

On one side, the old town (La Cuidad) is a maze of narrow lanes twisting between whitewashed buildings and palaces that reveal a rich Moorish history. The 14th century Casa del Rey Moro (House of the Moorish King) clings to the edge of the chasm. In addition to its lush gardens and spectacular views, it features a 236-step staircase cut into the rock, which goes down 60 meters (197 feet) to a platform that once held an ingenious pumping system. Today, its main attraction is its forbidding perspective of the ravine. As I start my way back up, I have a sympathetic thought for the Christian slaves who made the journey daily to fetch water.

The Birthplace of Bullfighting

The bullfighting arena features two levels of covered seating.

On the other side of the bridge, the new town (El Mercadillo) is home to the Plaza de Toro de Ronda, one of the oldest and most illustrious bullfighting arenas in Spain. Built in 1785 by the same architect who created the Puente Nuevo, it can host 5,000 spectators in its two layers of raised seating covered by a roof supported by 136 pillars. Ronda is known to be the birthplace of modern bullfighting. While historians speculate that the practice actually began in pre-Roman societies around the Mediterranean, it is Ronda native Pedro Romero (1754-1839) who perfected the craft and laid down the first rules of engagement, thus going down in history as the father of the Ronda style.

The arena includes a bullflighting museum.

Although we definitely are no supporters of bullfighting, we nonetheless appreciate our visit of the vast arena with its elaborate “backstage” passages leading to pens where bulls are housed on fight days, and tthe adjoining equestrian facility where the proud Andalusian horses are still stabled and trained. The complex also includes a small museum dedicated to the tradition.

 

 

The Plaza de Toro de Ronda can seat 5000 spectators.

Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo

Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo.

Wine has been made around Ronda since Roman times. This wine-making tradition endured through the end of the 19th century when the vineyard was devastated by the Phylloxera pest and never recovered. Until recently. The past couple of decades have seen a renewed interest in the powerful red wines of the Sierrania de Ronda, which now boasts over 20 boutique wineries. A number of them welcome visitors for tours and tastings, and traveling with the family oenophile means we must check things out.

The Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo vineyards.

A bit of research points us to Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo. Established in 2006 on a two-hectare (five-acre) plot of land of the picturesque Guadalcobacin River valley, a mere 20-minute drive north from the center of Ronda, it is a family owned and operated artisan winery. It was created and continues to be managed as a rigorously organic operation – an important point for us – by its founder Miguel Garcia Pereila, who also conducts pre-arranged personalized tours and tastings.

Miguel (right) and Lee (left) discuss wine aging in the cellar.

Since the property also features a couple of accommodation options, we have decided to stay the night. We arrive in the late afternoon to a warm welcome by Miguel and his wife Izabel and settle into our rooms before our tour of the vineyards and the wine-making operation – a visit said on the winery’s website to take approximately 45 minutes. Ours takes twice that long as we pepper Miguel with questions while he introduces us down to the smallest detail to the cultivation and care of his vines following timeless natural methods..

A Memorable Wine-tasting Experience

The patio is the heart of the Bodegas.

When we finally emerge from the aging cellar back onto the cloistered patio which is the heart of the property, the table is set for our three-course, four-wine tasting dinner. We sip on a glass of pale golden Moscatel with its citrus fruit scent and crisp, refreshing taste while Izabel brings forth the tapas. The white table cloth is soon covered with a generous spread of local Iberico ham, chorizo, coarse country paté, Manchego cheese, slices of succulent tomatoes just picked from her garden and a golden potatoe tortilla. With its basket of freshly baked earthy country bread, it looks like a meal onto itself. Miguel reappears to introduce hisf raspberry-colored Rosado. An equal blend of Syrah and Merlot, it has a lovely aroma of fresh flowers and cherries, and a definite fruity taste. Since I favor crisp, lighter wines, the Rosado turns out to be my favorite of this tasting.

The table is set for our wine-tasting.

Izabel’s paella is the best we’ve ever tasted.

As we finish polishing off the tapas, Izabel returns with her very own family-recipe paella, followed by Miguel with his Roble de Alcobazin, an intense red blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Merlot with a complex aroma of mature fruit, black currents and a hint of vanilla. We linger over our paella, sipping the rich, well rounded wine in the warm Spanish night, feeling the moment couldn’t get any better. Yet it does when Miguel returns one last time, bearing his prize-winning Zabel de Alcobazin vintage red. Yes, it is named in honor of his wife.

This blend in equal parts of select Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Merlot grapes is a deep cherry red. Aged 12 months in French and American oak barrels, then a minimum of two years in the bottle, it is clearly too complex for me. I defer to Lee, the connoisseur of full-bodied reds, to parse the “nose” of mature fruits and dark berries with a hint of butterscotch. As for the “palate”? Rich, oaky and well structured, with a big volume in the mouth – a worthy grand finale to a memorable evening.

We take our leave of our gracious hosts the next morning and head for Seville, well aware that our time at Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo will remain one of our fondest memories of this trip.

 

The Puente Nuevo affords a dizzying panoramic view of the area.

Good to Know

  • Getting there – Malaga-Costa Del Sol airport is the main international airport serving Andalusia. It accounts for 85 percent of the international traffic of the region. It is located eight kilometers (five miles) southwest of of the city.
  • Visiting Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo welcomes visitors year-round by appointment only. Consult their website for visiting, tasting, and hospitality options and reservations. Contact:  tel. (+34) 622 87 90 05. e-mail: info@bodegasgarciahidalgo.es.

Location, location, location!

Ronda

Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo

Moorish Palaces and Gypsy Grottos – Granada

Moorish Palaces and Gypsy Grottos – Granada

While the region surrounding Granada is known to have has been populated from at least the eighth century B.C., the present-day city wasn’t founded until the early eleventh century, recently by the standards of the Mediterranean basin. Three centuries into the Moors rule of the area, a civil war ended the Umayyad Caliphate. Victorious Berber general Ziri ibn Manad established an independent kingdom for himself. However, the local capital (Elvira) was located on a low plain, which as he had himself demonstrated made it difficult to protect from attacks. So the newly minted Zirid ruler decided to transport his quarters to higher grounds.

Taking to the hills

Andalusia - The Albacin Moorish neighborhood of Granada.

Albacin is the ancient Moorish medina of Granada.

The hilltop hamlet of Gárnata (altitude 738 meters) seemed a better bet. Especially since it came with an ancient military fortress (or Alcazaba) already in the neighborhood. In short order the site was transformed into one of the most important cities of Al-Andalus, as the Iberian Peninsula was then called. By the end of the eleventh century, the Alhambra had become a walled military citadel. The city itself had spread across the Darro River to include the Albaicín, a steep labyrinth of narrow streets lined with whitewashed houses and secluded inner gardens (or cármenes). It is this ancient Moorish medina that I choose to call home for my visit to Granada.

Granada-Alambra view.

View of the Alambra from my window at La Casa del Aljarife.

The taxi from the train station in the lower, contemporary part of the city drops me off at the bottom of the hill on Plaza Nova. It’s on foot after that, an ankle-twisting noisy walk rolling my luggage uphill over cobblestones that randomly morph into stairs. Ten sweaty minutes later, I arrive at La Casa del Aljarife and feel instantly rewarded for the climb. This tiny Bed and Breakfast is perched high on the hill, a typical narrow multi-level seventeenth century house in the far corner of the handkerchief-size Placeta de Cruz Verde. My host, Christian Most, takes over the luggage-hauling up the steep, centuries-worn stairs all the way to the fourth floor. La Casa del Aljarife has only four guest rooms. Mine is a light-filled retreat at the very top of the house, with an eye-level view of the Alhambra.

Granada-Albacin patio

The patio of our Albacin home is filled with trees in bloom.

In the morning, Christian dishes out hearty Anglo-Saxon breakfasts in the inner courtyard filled with fruit trees in blooms and bird songs. It wouldn’t take much convincing to get me to linger in the serene cármen, but the vibrant andalusian world is calling. It’s uphill again to the highest point of the Albaicín, the Plaza de San Nicolas famous for its panoramic view of the Alhambra against the snowy backdrop of the Sierra Nevada.

 

Fabulous Flamenco

Andalusia - Granada Flamenco Dancers.

Granada Flamenco Dancer.

The Albaicín is a neighborhood perfect for getting lost. I follow narrow lanes lined with hole-in-the-wall bazaar shops and eateries sending out cooking smells that speak of North African souks. My wanderings invariably lead to some tiny placeta, where I can rest my cobblestone-weary feet over sweet mint tea. This is how I come across the Jardines de Zoraya. I step in for tea in the shaded garden one afternoon, and return the next evening for great local food and even better Flamenco.

Granada has a long Flamenco tradition, in the Albaicín and even more so in Sacromonte, the historic home of the city’s thriving Roma community (often called Gypsies, or Ginatos). They settled in the Sacromonte neighborhood of Valaparaiso Hill to the north of the Alhambra in the fifteenth century, after the combined forces of Aragon and Castile finally tossed out the Moors. Sacromonte is famous for its many whitewashed caves cut into the rock, some still used as residences today. It is the home of Zambra, a Flamenco variation with a distinct oriental feel.

A pearl set in emeralds

Andalusia - Alhambra Nasrid Patio.

Patio in a Nastrid Palace in the Alhambra.

This is how Moorish poets saw the Alhambra. After days of admiring it from afar, I finally get to set foot into this sublime masterpiece of European Islamic art. The Alhambra is first of all a fortress with heavily fortified peach colored brick walls that snake around the crest of al Shabika hill. Over the centuries, succeeding dynasties expended it until it became a city onto itself, and the seat of power of the Nasrid Emirs.

The palaces that once housed the rulers and their court are deep within the walls, surrounded by a small town that was home to lesser nobility and common people, and a military area with the barracks of the royal guard. The sheer size and complexity of the site are overwhelming. After a day spent exploring every corner, awed at every turn by architectural grandeur and stunning artistic details, it is a relief to escape to the Generalife Palace.

Andalusia - Granada Generalife Patio.

Alhambra Generalife Patio.

A five-minute walk over a bridge outside the fortifications, I enter the legendary Generalife gardens. Built on the south slope of the Cerro del Sol (Hill of the Sun), the gardens and orchards were originally created to supply food for the Alhambra. The palace was added the fourteenth century as a summer retreat and country estate for the then Nasrid monarch, Muhammad III. Generalife is one of the oldest surviving Moorish gardens anywhere.

Today, the exactingly restored Alhambra and Generalife are considered a pinnacle of Moorish art and Andalusian history. They are, along with the Albaicín classified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Good to know

When planning to visit the Alhambra:

  • It is prudent to purchase well tickets ahead as visitors are strictly limited to 6,600 per day. Only one-third of these tickets are set aside for day-of-visit purchase, This may seem like a lot until confronted with the endless lines at the box office.
  • Tickets are only valid for the pre-assigned day and time of visit and are not refundable
  • Only 300 visitors are allowed every half-hour by pre-determined schedule into the Nasrid Palaces.
  • Tickets may be purchased ahead at:
    • In Granada – The Alhambra shop (Tienda de la Alhambra)at 40 Calle Reyes Catolicos
    • Any ATM of La Caixa Bank
    • By phone in Spain: 902 88 80 01
    • By phone aborad: +34 958 926 031
    • They may also be purchased by internet ticketmaster.es . However Ticketmaster only has access to a limited number of tickets that are often sold out one week or more ahead of time.

Location, location, location!

Granada, Andalusia, Spain

The essence of Andalusia – From Arcos to Ronda and Cordoba

The essence of Andalusia – From Arcos to Ronda and Cordoba

Andalusia - Arcos della Frontera.

della Frontera overlook the Guadalate River Valley.

After a week of enjoying the urban charms of Seville, a two-hour southward bus ride takes me to Arcos de la Frontera, the pearl of famous White Villages, for a taste of timeless Spanish culture. The old village clings to the very top of a narrow limestone ridge, a tangled maze of cobblestone streets lined with whitewashed medieval houses and ancient churches. From my room atop one of these historic homes, the view plunges abruptly down to the fertile valley of the Guadalate River and the rolling plain beyond. The whole place is a photographer’s paradise.

Ronda

Andalusia -Ronda and the El Tajo Gorge.

The Rio Guadalvin runs through the center of Ronda.

Another three-hour bus ride west, and I am in Ronda. I am a fan of Spanish busses. Comfortable, punctual and inexpensive, they are a great way to get from one small town to the next. Ronda is an eagle’s nest of a town famous for dramatic views and the 150 meter (500 foot) deep El Tajo gorge of the Rio Guadalvin that runs through its center. Celts, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors habited the area in turn before it was conquered by the Catholic Kings. Most left interesting marks of their presence.

Ronda and the local Romero family played a major role in the development of Spanish bullfighting as it is known today. While definitely not a supporter of the sport myself, I enjoy visiting the spectacular eighteen century Plaza de Toros. The vast bullring, 66 meter (217 foot) in diameter is surrounded by a stone passage and two layers of raised covered seating. The roof circular roof if supported by 136 pillars that hold 68 arches. The complex also houses a small museum dedicated to the sport.

Cordoba

Andalusia - Cordoba viewed from the Alcazar.

The Alcazar offers a fine view of La Mezquita and the Cordoba skyline.

The last stop of this journey is Cordoba where I can’t get enough of La Mezquita, the Great Mosque turned cathedral in the center of the historic town, considered one the most significant monuments of Moorish and Renaissance architecture. In its original mosque incarnation, it was the hub of Islamic community life in Al-Andalus for three centuries, serving as a teaching center as well as courthouse and place of worship. The building is constructed with 865 soaring columns of granite, marble, jasper and onyx, made from pieces of the Roman temple that previously occupied the site and other repurposed nearby Roman monuments. The sanctuary also has elaborately carved and gilded prayer alcoves. After Ferdinand III conquered Cordoba in 1236, the mosque was turned into a catholic church. A number of chapels were inserted over time within the expansive structure, most notably the colossal Renaissance cathedral nave.

Andalusia - Cordoba's gardens of the Alcazar.

Cordoba’s Alcazar Gardens.

Near the Mezquita is the old Jewish Ghetto, home to the Sephardic House and the Synagogue. Then at the southwestern edge of the old town there is the Alcazar de Cordoba. The palace was the seat of the independent Caliphate of Cordoba. Over time it expanded to become a large compound with baths, gardens and one of the largest libraries of the era. It was reconstructed and further expanded by the Christian Kings following the 1236 conquest.

So rich is the history of Andalusia and its architectural legacy that I feel this first visit has barely scratched the surface. I am already thinking of a return visit. Granada is next.

A Few Souvenirs

Location, location, location!

Cordoba, spain

The essence of Andalusia – Seville

The essence of Andalusia – Seville

As is the case with many of the great historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, the origins of Seville are shrouded in legends. Hercules himself is said to have taken a break from his better-publicized great deeds to create the original settlement of what is now the capital of Andalusia, Spain’s southern-most region.

A complicated history

Andalusia - Seville's Torre del Oro tower.

The Moors’ Torre del Oror on the Guadalquivir River.

In the millennia that followed, others came to lend a hand in shaping the city as we know it today. It became Hispalis to the Romans after they evicted the Carthaginians. Rome undertook its customary construction program, a few remains of which endure to this day including the twin columns that dominate the vast La Alameda de Hércules Square on the north side of the city’s historic center. Then came the Vandals and the Visigoths successively, who left nothing but their usual devastation before being abruptly tossed out by the Moors in 711. This ushered in the Islamic Empire of Al-Andalus that was to endure for half a millennium, leaving a stunning architectural and artistic imprint throughout the region.

Andalusia - Seville's Arschbishop's Palace.

The Spanish Baroque Archbishop’s Palace.

Then in 1248, the Christian King Ferdinand III of Castile conquered the area. The Moors’ Palace (the Alcazar) became the Castilian Royal residence still used today as the local residence of the royal family and mosques morphed into churches. Enter Christopher Columbus. Upon his return from the New World in 1493, Seville managed to co-opt the monopoly on trans-oceanic trade for its port on the Guadalquivir River. Prosperity ensued and the city became a major economic and cultural center of the Baroque era. To this day it is a unique hybrid of Islamic and European architecture and traditions, and a fascinating place to start my discovery of Andalusia.

A tale of two cultures

Andalusia - Seville's Triana Bridge over the Guadalquivir.

The Triana Bridge over the Guadalquivir.

Since my first random wanderings lead me to the bank of the Guadalquivir, I board a ship for hour-long dusk cruise. In addition to offering a beautiful panorama of both sides of the city, highlights include the Torre del Oro, a polygonal medieval watchtower originally built by the Moors as parts of the city ramparts to control river access. While the golden tile facing that gave it its name have long vanished, it still a gleams in the early evening light. Further down river the Isabel II (or Triana ) Bridge, a superb example of nineteenth century iron architecture, leads to the historic working class Triana neighborhood, famous to this day for its ceramics and flamenco music.

Andalusia -Seville's Cathedral and the Giralda.

The Santa Maria del la Sede cathedral is the largest gothic cathedral in the world.

During the next few days, I explore the area around the Cathedral (Santa Maria del la Sede), the largest gothic cathedral in the world. Its fifteenth century builders used some columns and other elements from the mosque that previously stood on the grounds, including the Giralda. Once a minaret, the 300-foot bell tower, now Seville’s iconic symbol, offers a unique view of the city. Inside the cathedral, a grand mausoleum is said to holds the remains of Christopher Columbus.

 

Andalusia - Seville's Alcazar Neptune Fountain.

Neptune Fountain in the gardens of the Alcazar.

I wander in the courtyards of the Alcazar with their lacy stone and woodworks and their intricate Islamic geometric tile works. The gardens are filled with orange trees and the trickle of countless fountains. And I lose myself in the labyrinth of medieval streets of Barrio Santa Cruz, the Jewish ghetto until the Jews were driven from Spain by the 1492 edict of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.

 

Andalusia - Seville's Lebrija Palace.

The interior patio of the Lebrija Palace is paved with Romain mosaics.

The Palacio de Lebrija is an ideal refuge for a rainy day. This little known museum is a typical Sevilliano family palace built around cloistered interior patios, restyled in the nineteenth century from original sixteenth century buildings by the Condesa de Lebrija. The Countess was an avid collector and the museum houses her eclectic private collection ranging from Greek, Roman, Etruscan and Persian ceramics to Louis XIV furniture and works by Van Dyck and artists of the Murillo school.

A Few Souvenirs

Location, location, location!

Seville, spain