Cave di Cusa
Stretched across a 1.8 kilometer (1.2 mile) long ridge, the ancient limestone quarry of Cave di Cusa was actively mined beginning in the first half of the 6th century BC, its stone used to construct the temples of Selinunte. It was precipitously abandoned in 409 BC when the city was captured by the Carthaginians. The blocks of stones in their various stages of completion have remained exactly as they were some 25 centuries ago. Along with the column sections (or drums), there are also some capitals and square incisions for quarrying square blocks, all intended for the temples of Selinunte. Some the drums that had already been extracted were found ready for transport. Others, already on their way, were abandoned on the road. Some gigantic drums, definitely intended for what is now known as Temple G, the largest in Selinunte and one of the largest in the Hellenic world, are found on the western side of the quarry, also in the state in which they were originally abandoned.
The Quarrying Process
Thanks to the many column drums scattered in various stages of completion, Cave di Cusa provides a clear idea of how the temples at Selinunte (and presumably elsewhere) were built. In a nutshell: a circle of a specified diameter was traced on top of the stone mass. The quarriers then chiseled downwards around the circumference until they reached a depth of the specified height of the drum, which varied for the different structures, to a maximum of 2.5 meters (8 feet). The result was a perfect cylinder surrounded by a gap in the stone of about 60 centimeters (2 feet). Finally, the base of the cylinder was chipped away until it could be levered from the mother stone underneath. These drums were then pulled by oxen to the construction site, to be hoisted into position and embellished as needed.
The Cursed City
Founded in the mid-7th century BC, Selinunte, or Selinos as it was called by the Greeks, was once one of the richest and most influential cities in the Hellenic world. At its peak, it is estimated to have been home to 30,000 citizens and at least twice as many slaves. Beautifully located on a plateau overlooking the sea, it was the western-most Greek colony in Sicily and consequently often came into contact – and conflict – with the Phoenicians and the native Elymian people of Segesta in the west and northwest of the island.
Then, almost overnight in 409 BC, Selinunte went from being one of the most progressive and eminent cities in Sicily to a vast expanse of rubble. The Carthaginian, who for many years had seen this powerful Greek city as a hindrance to their own influence in Sicily, took advantage of a conflict between the Greeks of Selinunte and the Elymians of Segesta to intervene. They sent some 100,000 men to lay siege to Selinunte, which was only able to hold out for nine days. The subsequent sacking involved the massacre of some 16,000 of the town’s inhabitants while most of the remaining citizens either fled to Mazara or where taken into slavery.
Selinunte Archeological Park
Today, abandoned for nearly 2,500 years, Selinunte is one of the largest archaeological areas in Europe, a 270 hectare (667 acre) treasure trove of remains of one of the most flourishing classical civilizations in the Mediterranean. The park is built around a vast fortified acropolis overlooking the sea, and surrounded by the ruins of several temples dedicated to Zeus, Apollo, Athena and Hera among others. Because of the difficulty of defining most of the deities they honored, the temples are designated by letters.
Situated on the highest point of the site, the Acropolis revolves around two perpendicular axes. In addition to the remains of five temples in various stages of preservation, it also includes a Punic sacrificial area with the sign of the goddess Tanit (Carthage’s main deity) found on the slabs. The most southerly Doric temples, O and A, dated from around 490, are dedicated to Castor and Pollux (Dioscuri), the legendary twin brothers, born from the union of Jupiter and the queen of Sparta.
Temple B and the Megaron (or great hall) show remains of Ionic columns and a Doric frieze. On the esplanade of the Acropolis, Temple C, with a peristyle of 6 by 17 columns is dated 6th century BC, and estimated to have been dedicated to Apollo. Beyond Temple D, similar to the previous one, the Agora, or business area includes a market, houses and workshops.
The Eastern Zone
Some 700 meters (half a mile) east of the Acropolis, the Eastern Zone holds three major temples. Temple E, tentatively dated around 450 BC, is the only one of the entire site to have been re-erected (in the 1960’s). This Doric style temple with a peristyle of 6 by 15 columns, measures 25 by 67 meters (82 by 220 feet). An inscription indicates that it was dedicated to Hera, the goddess of family and childbirth. Temple G was dedicated to Zeus or Apollo. With a peristyle of 8 by 16 columns 16 meters (52 feet) high, and dimensions of 50 by 110 meters (165 by 360 feet), it is one of the largest anywhere in the Hellenic world. Started in 530 BC, it was still unfinished when the city was destroyed. One of its columns, restored in 1820, still stands guard over the majestic ruin.
Good to Know
- Getting there — From Palermo: It’s a 90-minute, 120-kilometer (75 mile) drive via road E90/A29 from Palermo to the Castelvetrano exit. From Mazara del Vallo, it’s a 30 minute, 30 kilometer (19 mile) drive to the Castelvetrano exit.
- Visiting — Archaeological Park of Selinunte, via Selinunte, Castelvetrano, is open every day including holidays from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm. Contact: Tel. +39 0924 46277. Cave di Cusa: via Ugo Bassi, 37, 91021 Campobello di Mazara is open daily from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm – however at the time of my visit (September 2021) the site was accessible by appointment only. Contact: Tel. +39 0924 46277.
Definitely on my list.