Marrakech was in turn the capital of both the Almoravid (1056 to 1147) and Saadi (1509 to 1659) dynasties. While we owe the very existence of the city to the Almoravid rulers, very few actual structures remain of their legacy. The Saadian, on the other hand, left us one of the most unique architectural treasures in the city: an opulent palace for the dead.
The Saadian Tombs
The final resting place of the Saadi dynasty is a vast necropolis housing over 200 tombs spread throughout a shaded flower garden anchored by two major mausoleums.
At the eastern end of the site, the oldest mausoleum adjoins the southern wall of the ancient Kasbah Mosque (circa 12th century A.D.). It was built between 1557 and 1574 by the second Saadi sultan, , to honor his father , the founder of the dynasty, who was killed in 1557. Abdallah himself was later buried next to his father in 1574, as were his two successors.
However, what makes the Saadian Tombs one of the most visited monuments in Marrakech is the western side of the necropolis, build by the last of the dynasty’s ruler’s Sultan Ahmed al Mansour Ed Dahbi (1578–1603.). He first commissioned the mausoleum of his father Muhammad al-Sheik and his mother, the concubine Lalla Mas’uda, and then later on his own after-life palace.
He spared no expense, especially for the latter, importing Italian Carrara marble and gilding honeycomb muqarnas(decorative plasterwork) with pure gold to make the Chamber of 12 Pillars a suitably glorious mausoleum. And he applied a definite pecking order even in death, keeping major princes close by in the Chamber of Three Niches while relegating to garden plots some 150 chancellors and members of the royal household.
While al Mansour died in splendor in 1603, a few decades later the Alaouite dynasty succeeded the Saadian, and the new ruler, Sultan Moulay Ismail was eager to remove all traces of the former ruling family. He ordered the necropolis sealed, leaving only one concealed entrance, a small passageway through the wall from the adjoining Kasbah Mosque. And the Saadian Tombs faded from public awareness until they were “re-discovered” by the French in 1917. The site was subsequently restored to its original frandeur and opened to visitors who now descend upon it in droves.
El Badi Palace
Another of al Mansur’s grand commissions, el Badi Palace didn’t fare so well. The immense complex that once boasted 360 rooms now stands as a magnificent ruin. The first thing that catches visitors’ attention when entering what remains of the palace is not that its design was influenced by the Alhambra in Granada, but rather the number of storks nesting on top of its ramparts.
Paved in gold and turquoise tiles and decorated throughout with Italian marble during the reign of al Mansur, el Badi was at the time the most impressive palace in the western reaches of the Muslim world. But in 1690, Sultan Moulay Ismael stripped it bare to adorn his own palace in Meknes, some 350 kilometers (220 miles) northeast of Marrakech. Today, the vast courtyard with its four sunken gardens and reflecting pools can only hint at its former majesty. Although now a mere shell, el Badi still overwhelms with its massive proportions. And steep stairways still lead to the top of the ramparts, offering unique views of the roofs and towers of the Medina and the Atlas mountains.
The Bahia Palace
When Si Moussa, the powerful Grand Vizier of Sultan Hassan I, built the Bahia in the 1860’s, he envisioned the grandest palace of its time. A lofty goal that only came close to fruition with Si Moussa’s son, Ahmed ben Moussa (a.k.a. Ba Ahmed) who rose to even higher prominence than his father, serving as Grand Vizier and regent of Morocco during the reign of the child Sultan Abd al-Aziz.
Ba Ahmed expanded upon the existing palace, bringing in a renowned architect and some of the finest craftsmen in the country to create a lavishly decorated 160-room palace to house his four wives and 24 concubines. Spread across some height hectares (20 acres), of landscaped gardens and lofty courtyards, the complex still still impresses with its magnificent decor, and is considered one of the finest examples of Moorish-Andalusian architecture in Morocco.
After Ba Ahmed’s his death in 1900, however, the palace was looted en masse. His concubines swiftly took their share before Sultan Abd al-Aziz (the former child Sultan) carted off all the remaining furnitures and removable contents to his own palace. However, by looting standards, it was all fairly restrained, and the buildings themselves were undamaged. Although the royal family still occasionally uses the Bahia for official occasions, most of it is now open to visitors. The public rooms remain empty, which only allows the splendor of the palace to come through all the more.
Dar Si Said
Located just north of the Bahia Palace, Dar Si Said, also now known as the Museum of Moroccan Arts, was formerly the residence of Ba Ahmed’s brother Sisi Said, The collection of the museum is considered one of the finest in Morocco. It includes jewelry from the High Atlas, the Anti Atlas and the extreme south; carpets from the Haouz and the High Atlas; oil lamps from Taroudant; blue pottery from Safi and green pottery from Tamgroute and leatherwork from .
The lovely central garden is laid out in classic Moroccan styel, and the carved and painted ceilings on the top floor are considered the finest example of painted ceilings in the city. The museum also features some fine wooden screens and frames recovered from the Bahia palace.
Good to Know
Marrakech is located in central Morroco, in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains and a few hours away from the edge of the Sahara desert.
- Getting there — Marrakech has a modern, well organized international airport with direct scheduled flights from Paris, London, and a number of other major European cities, as well as Casablanca, Morocco’s largest city. The airport is located about six kilometers (4 miles) from the medina, and taxis are readily available throughout the day – but it is prudent to clearly set the fare with the driver before getting into the cab. A better option is to arrange for a pre-paid pick up through your hotel or riad.
- Getting around— there is only one way to fully explore the medina, and it’s on foot
- Visiting —The Saadian Tombs are open daily from 9:00 am to 4:45 pm. El Badi is open daily from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. The Bahia Palacei s open daily from 9:00 am to 4:30 pm and Dar Si Saild is open daily Wednesday through Monday from 9:00 am to 4:45 pm. Closed on Tuesday.