Andalusia Road Trip – Granada, The Nasrid Legacy

Andalusia Road Trip – Granada, The Nasrid Legacy

Day Five – It’s mid-afternoon by the time we reach Granada, the city synonymous with the most emblematic monument of the seven centuries of Islamic legacy to the Iberian Peninsula: The Alhambra. Stretched across an entire hilltop, the fortress was the seat of power of the Nasrid dynasty (1230 to 1492) and the Moors’ last stronghold to surrender to the Catholic Monarchs.

An Albaicin Hideaway

The Albaicin is a maze of steep cobbled lanes.

Through the three centuries of its power, the city of Granada had spread North across the Darro River from the Alhambra to include the Albaicin hillside. A steep warren of winding cobbled lanes, narrow whitewashed vertical houses, pocket-size jasmine-scented courtyards and souk-like shopping, the ancient neighborhood retains to this day its picturesque Arabic character.

Our terrace overlooks the Alhambra.

To make the most of our Granada experience, this is where we’ve chosen to stay. The topography of the neighborhood means that accommodation opportunities consist mainly of tiny bed-and-breakfasts and short-term rental apartments. We choose the latter on this visit, and have the good fortune to find a comfortable light-filled two-bedroom retreat on the top floor a beautifully restored ancient residence halfway up the hill. Our private terrace overlooks the roofs of the old town and the majestic Alhambra proudly looming above them. We linger here, soaking in the atmosphere until the late afternoon light starts to brush the walls of the fortress with golden dust. Time to head up to the Mirador San Nicolas at the very top of the Albaicín hill and watch the sun set over the most dramatic views of the city.

The Mirador San Nicolas offers the best view over the Alhambra.

Across the wooded escarpment of Darro river valley, the forts and palaces of the Alhambra complex, at eye-level with us now, are taking on coppery hues. The atmosphere is festive on San Nicholas Square, where guitarists and singers are entertaining the crowd. Just below the square, we spot a couple of restaurants with terraces facing the stupendous views. They are much in demand of course, but it is still early for Spain (7:00 pm) and we are in luck. We settle at the terrace of El Huerto de Juan Ranas for a leisurely drink. The light keeps changing, and a full moon rises on cue, right over the Alhambra. My son Lee thoughtfully keeps the tapas and the sangria coming while I shoot pictures non-stop. It’s quite late by the time we make our way back down the ancient alleys to our apartment after what will rate as the most perfect evening of our trip.

The Nasrid Legacy

Under the Nasrid rule, a complete royal city flourished within the fortifications of the Alhambra.

At the height of the Nasrid power, a royal city of palaces, houses, baths, schools, mosques and military barracks flourished within the walls of the Alhambra. While a few remains of the complex date further back, most of what survives today – the Alcazaba (military fortress) and the the Palacios Nazaríes (Nasrid palaces or royal palaces) were built in the 14th century. They now face each other across a broad parade ground incongruously flanked by the grand Renaissance Palacio de Carlos V (Charles V Palace), both constructed by the Christian Monarchs  in the 16th century.

The Alcazaba

Ramparts and towers were added to the original 11th century Alcazaba military fortress.

This military fortress of the 11th century Ziridian rulers was all that stood on the site when the first Nasrid ruler made Granada his capital.  He added the current ramparts, and three new towers: the Broken Tower, the Keep and the Watch Tower, and made it the first royal residence until the palaces were completed. From then on, the Alcazaba was only used for military purposes and later on under the Christian rulers as a state prison. The Watch Tower, the tallest of the three towers is named from the bell on its turret added under Christian rule, and which until recently was rung to mark the irrigation hours for the workers in Granada’s vast agricultural plain. The towers of the Alcazaba can be visited and offer spectacular panoramic views of the Albaicín and the entire region.

The Nasrid Palaces

The Nasrid Palaces offer exquisite exemples of Islamic architecture.

The Harem open onto private courtyards.

In stark contrast to the Alcazaba with its massive fortification and towers, the Nazrid Palaces are built rather flimsily of brick, wood and adobe. They were not intended to last but rather to be renewed and redecorated by succeeding rulers. The buildings display brilliant use of light and space, but they are mainly a vehicle for the ornamental stucco. Most of the interior arches are only here to decorate. The walls are covered with rich ceramics and plasterworks and exquisitely carved wooden frames. Apparently, the greatest concern here was to cover every single space with ornamentation, with Arabic inscriptions featuring prominently throughout.

The royal palace was structured in three parts, each built around its own interior courtyard, and fulfilling a specific function: the first series of rooms, the Mexuar, was used for judicial and business purposes. Beyond it, the Serallo held reception rooms for embassies and others distinguished guests. The last section, the Harem, housed the private living quarters of the ruler and could only be entered by the family and their servants.

The Generalife

The Generalife is a secluded summer palace.

The Generalife or Garden of the Governor was built in the 13th century as a leisure summer palace where the sultan could get away from the official affairs of the Alhambra. It is set on the slope of the Cerro del Sol (Hill of the sun), from which there is a panoramic view over the Alhambra hilltop and the valleys beyond. Although a mere 10-minute walk from the palace, the Generalife has the feel of a peaceful villa, with none of the decorative excesses of the Nasrid Palace. Surrounded by lush enclosed gardens and serene patios with elegant reflecting pools and gurgling fountains, it succeeds beautifully in feeling like a secluded retreat.  And is my favorite part of the whole complex. 

The Alhambra and Generalife loom over the Granada landscape.

Good to Know

  • Visiting – The Alhambra is the most visited monument in Spain – and the number of admissions is limited to to 6600 per day – which consistently sell out weeks ahead of time. Mercifully tickets may be purchased well in advance on-line  from official ticket office. A general ticket allows access to the entire site with a strictly limited time slot to visit the Nazrid Palaces (you may choose time if you plan sufficiently ahead).  Beware: the link above is to the only official site for ticket purchase.
  • Staying – Our lovely Albaicín apartment was located at 3, Calle Babole and our hostess, Gloria della Tore, couldn’t have been more welcoming or helpful. The property is listed with direct booking sites: Vrbo, HomeAway and Airbnb
  • Eating – El Huerto de Juan Rana, located at Callejón Atarazana Vieja, 6-8, Granada, is open daily 11:30 am to midnight.  Contact:  tel.: +34 958 286 925.

Location, location, location!

Granada

Andalusia Road Trip – a Day in Cordoba

Andalusia Road Trip – a Day in Cordoba

Cordoba had been an important settlement since Roman times, but it was the Moors’ conquest in 711 a.d. that transformed it into one of the world’s leading center of Islamic education and learning. By the 10th  century, it had grown to be the largest city in Western Europe. Then its importance steadily declined after in was captured in 1236 by King Ferdinand III of Castile as part of the Christian Reconquista.

The Roman bridge was part of the Via Augusta.

While a number of interesting monuments remain from its long history, from the massive first century b.c. Roman bridge across the Guadalquivir River to the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos (Castle of the Christian Kings), the fortress constructed in 1328 by King Alfonso XI, one building alone is reason enough to put Córdoba on our Andalusian itinerary.

 

 

 

The Mesmerizing Mezquita

The courtyard features a traditional grove of citrus trees.

One of greatest works of Islamic architecture still in existence today, the Great Mosque of Córdoba (or Mezquita in Andalusian Arabic) is a unique symbol of the sophisticated culture that flourished here more than a millennium ago. It is impossible to overstate the beauty and serenity (despite the throngs of tourists) of its monumental interior.

 

 

The mihrab (prayer niche) is the focal point of the prayer hall.

The building consists of a forest of 865 columns of granite, marble, onyx and jasper, many of them repurposed from a Roman temple that once occupied the site, as well as other nearby monuments. The columns support soaring horseshoe-shaped double arches in perfectly symmetrical patterns to create the illusion an immense grove of palm trees. The sides of the sanctuary also include elaborately carved and gilded prayer alcoves. In its original mosque incarnation, it became the hub of Islamic community life in Al-Andalus ( as Andalusia was called then) for three centuries, serving as a teaching center and courthouse as well as a place of worship.

The Gothic Villaviciosa Chapel was the nave of first church built in the Mezquita.

Although it was promptly consecrated as a Catholic church upon the Christian conquest, its basic structure was mainly unchanged even as some 40 chapels were inserted into the prayer alcoves. The main alteration didn’t occur until the 16th century when Charles V authorized the construction of a large Baroque cathedral within the center of the former Muslim prayer hall. This caused some destruction, but it also ensured the preservation of the complex. It is estimated that 70 percent of the original mosque survived.

Intricate cupsed arches surround the mihrab.

Officially, the name of the complex is now Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion (Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption), or “Mosque-Cathedral,” although it is a Catholic church exclusively, but neither are commonly used outside of administrative circles. It is widely known as simply la Mezquita, so that in Cordoba churchgoers go the the mosque for mass.

 

A Royal Stronghold

The Alcázar has retained its massive fortifications.

With its thick defensive walls, the Alcàzar of the Christian Kings, or Alcàzar of Córdoba for short is a metaphor for the history of the Andalusia. Here, Roman, Visigoth and Moorish ruins mingle in an imposing fortress that was in turn a favorite residence of the successive rulers of the area. However, by the time Ferdinand III of Castile took the city, the former Caliphal palace was in a state of advanced deterioration. It was his successor, Alfonso X who began building the present day palace on the site of the old fortress. It went on to fulfill varied functions, from serving as one of the primary residences of Isabella I of Castile and her spouse Ferdinand II of Aragon, (15th century), headquarters of the Spanish Inquisition (16th century) and more recently as a prison (first half a the 20th century).

The chapel now holds a display of Roman mosaics.

The most interesting feature of this blocky fortress is its small baroque chapel, now the Hall of the Mosaics, where a series of impressive Roman mosaics, discovered in the 1960’s during excavations of the nearby Corredera Square, are now displayed around the room. Beneath this hall are the Arabic-style baths divided into three rooms with vaulted ceilings with the familiar star openings.

Although Alfonso used only a fraction of the remains of the original Moorish structure in building the Alcàzar, he chose a Mujerar-style for his palace and gardens – which preserved the Moorish feel of the site.

The Gardens of the Alcázar

The upper level basin collects water from nearby mountains.

The gardens occupy a vast part of the palace grounds. Located on the Southwestern side of the property, it is believed that they were originally laid out by the first Islamic rulers (Abd ar-Rahman II – ruled 822-866) to complete the space destined to the Royal Harem, in a place close to the baths. The gardens were subsequently abandoned when his successor moved his residence to a countryside locations some 10 kilometers (6 miles) away, until the arrival of the Christian Kings gave them the appearance we enjoy today.

The gardens are designed around spectacular pools.

They are laid on three terraced levels. On the top terrace, two large bassins collect water routed from the nearby mountains and channel it down to the long fountain-pools flanked by cypress edges of the middle and lower terrace. On the side of the terrace closest to the fortifications wall, boxwood planted in a grid pattern provide the framework for a series of rose gardens adorned with statues of Isabella and Ferdinand – story has it that it is where they granted an audience to Christopher Columbus to hear about his project for a new route to the Indies. Despite their slightly formal layout and huge popularity with tourists, the gardens are an inviting place to wander, and my favorite part of the Alcàzar.

The Juderia

The tangle of narrow lanesof the Juderia preserve an intimate atmosphere,

Just north of the Mezquita, the Jewish Quarter of Cordoba is the medieval part of the city where the thriving Jewish community lived throughout the middle ages until the 15th century. At the heart of the quarter, the synagogue, a Mudejar construction and one only three original ones remaining in Spain, is now a small museum offering a glance at the Jewish culture’s impact on Spanish history.

Today the charming tangle of narrow lanes and secret courtyards, a must on every visitor’s itinerary, has succeeded to preserve an intimate feel – so far.

 

Good to Know

Visiting

  • La Mezquita may be seen in a couple of hours – although lovers of religious art could possible spend half a day here. Opening hours, November through February, Monday through Saturday: 8:30 am to 6:00 pm – Sunday and religious holidays: 8:30 am to 11:30 am and 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm. March through October, Monday through Saturday: 10:00 am to 7:00 pm – Sunday and religious holidays: 8:30 am to 11:30 am and 3:00 pm to 7:00 pm. Mezquita tickets are sold on-site only. However, because the size of the site, there is no limit to the number of visitors allowed per day, and the ticket-purchase process is fast and efficient. If possible, avoid the 11:00 am to 3:00 pm time-frame as most day-tripper tour groups visit during these hours.
  • The Alcàzar of Cordoba is a municipal building run with the mindset of a public office rather than a site of touristic interest. Opening hours are Tuesday through Sunday from 8:45 am to 3:15pm. Closed on Monday. Other than confirming the opening hours (which could vary for organizational reasons), their website is near useless. Attempts to purchase advanced tickets send you to another clumsy website. Click “on-line booking” then “monument visit” and at this point your English language option shifts to Spanglish with a strong emphasis on “Span”. You may also get error messages through the booking process but persevere – It took me many tries over several days to finally secure my two tickets. However, to my knowledge, it is the only site that will give you the option to purchase entry tickets without expensive guided tours attached. The other alternative is to show up early in the morning and hope you’ll beat the lengthy lines.

Location, location, location!

Cordoba

Andalusia Road Trip – Seville – A tale of two cultures

Andalusia Road Trip – Seville – A tale of two cultures

This is Day Two of our Andalusian adventure. We leave the peaceful vineyards of the Sierrania de Ronda at mid-morning for the two-hour drive to Seville, the vibrant capital and cultural center of Andalusia.

The Seville Cathedral seens through the Door of Forgiveness from the original Almohad mosque.

Throughout the region, displays of Catholic dominance compete for attention with the memories of several centuries of Moorish rule. This is especially apparent in Seville, where the largest Gothic cathedral in the world sits on the site of the great Aljiama mosque built in the 12th  century by the ruling Moorish Almohad dynasty, a few minutes’ walk from the Christian Kings’ magnificent Mudéjar-style Alcazàr palace.

 

The Seville Cathedral

Detail of a side chapel.

When Ferdinand III conquered Seville from the Moors in 1248, the mosque was immediately christianazied. But it was not until 1401 that the decision was made to build a proper Christian church on the site. Construction of the sprawling Catholic complex, which boasts 80 chapels and the longest central nave in Spain (135 meters or 443 feet) soaring to a breathtaking height of 42 meters (138 feet), lasted over a century.

The Christopher Columbus mausoleum sits in the nave.

Although still an active Catholic sanctuary, the cavernous cathedral is now overrun by visitors following a loosely arranged itinerary of its main attractions, starting with the mausoleum of Christopher Columbus. His coffin is held aloft by four figures representing the four kingdoms of Spain at the time of Columbus’ life: Aragon, Castille, Leon and Navarra. The massive late 19th  century monument by local sculptor Arturo Melida was originally installed in Havana, Cuba, before being moved to Seville in 1899 after Spain lost control of Cuba. (n.b. Havana and Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic also claim to hold his remains, but recent DNA tests confirmed that this tomb does hold Columbus – or one of his close relatives).

A Surfeit of Riches

The Gothic main altar is one of the most important polychrome wood structures of its time.

A few steps away, the Capilla Mayor (Main Chapel, or central nave) is dominated by its overwhelming gold-leafed Retablo of 45 carved scenes from the life of Christ. This huge Gothic main altar, regarded as the largest in Christendom, is one of the most spectacular polychrome wood structures of its time.Tourists of all nations stop to gape while their guides provide staggering statistics on the amount of gold involved.

The treasury holds an incredible wealth of silver reliquaries.

We follow the flow around the edge of the nave, checking out various chapels until we reach the Sala Capitular (Chapter House) with its magnificent domed ceiling mirrored in the marble design of the floor and its walls covered with fine Murillo paintings. Beyond it, the grandiose Sacrista Mayor (Great Sacristy) houses the treasury with its profusion of silver reliquaries, as well as the keys presented by the Moorish and Jewish communities to Ferdinand III upon the surrender of the city.

The minaret of the original mosque is now the bell tower.

However ambitious their Christian purpose, the new Castilian rulers did preserve a few elements from the Aljiama mosque. Most notably the minaret with its intricate brick pattern fashioned after Marrakech’s famous Koutoubia mosque now serve as the bell tower. This original Muslim bottom section is 51 meters (168 feet) high. Form the bell tower up, a seamless 16th century Renaissance addition raises the tower to 99 meters (325 feet). Topped with a distinctive bronze weather vane (giralda in Spanish), it has become the iconic symbol of Seville.

Citrus trees still gow in the courtyard where ritural ablutions once took place prior to Muslim worship.

The other remaining part of the former mosque is the vast Patio de los Naranjos, named for the orange trees that shaded the entrance courtyard where ritual ablutions took place prior to worship. In the center of the patio, a Moorish fountain incorporates a sixth century carved marble font, a surviving remnant of an earlier Visigoth church, which itself was leveled to make room for the mosque. On the north side of the patio, the Puerta del Perdón (Door of Forgiveness) is a stucco engraved horseshoe-shaped masterpiece also dating from the original Almohad mosque.

The Real Alcázar

The Alcázar retains elements of the original Almohad palace.

A few minutes’ walk from the cathedral, the Real Alcàzar (Royal Palace) is a unique complex of fortresses, palaces and gardens that has evolved over eleven centuries. It remains the official Seville residence of the Spanish royal family, making it the oldest royal palace still in use in Europe.

 

 

The Alcázar is built in the Mudéjar style.

The construction of the fortress began in the 10th century, during the reign of Caliph Abd al-Rahman (912-961). The complex was then enlarged and renovated throughout the city’s rich history. Beyond the fortification walls and the remains of a 12th century Almohad palace, all later work was carried out by Christian kings in the Mudéjar style – a post-Islamic style that remained strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship.

 

The Palacio de Don Pedro

The cupola of the Salon of the Ambassadors.

Also known as the Mudéjar Palace, the architectural masterpiece built by Pedro I (1334-1369) with its stunningly beautiful ceilings and elaborate plaster- and tile-work is the most spectacular of the entire complex. The Prince’s suite has a breathtaking gold ceiling intended to recreate a starlit night sky. The various apartments open through scalloped Moorish arches onto the exquisite Patio of the Maidens with its long central reflecting pool outlined by two sunken garden. The most famous of the public spaces is the Salon of the Ambassadors, a vast hall with a jaw-dropping Islamic-style cupola ceiling intended to represent the universe.

Magical Gardens

Almohad-style patios are arranged around bubbling fountains.

The Mercury Pond is inspired by the Italian Mannerist style.

The gardens are a major element of the Alcàzar. Spread across 6 hectares (15 acres) they have evolved through the centuries into three distinct areas that reflect the style of gardening of their respective eras while remaining the oasis of tranquility intended by the early occupants.

Closest to the palace, the ancient Almohad-style gardens are an inviting maze of tiled patios, bubbling fountains and secret corners, all connected by stairs and verdant arches. Then come the central Renaissance gardens, designed in the 16th century in the Italian Mannerist style. Their most famous elements are the Mercury Pond (named for the statue of the Roman god standing in the middle of it) and adjoining Grotto Gallery, which transformed a part of the Moorish fortifications into an upper loggia from which to admire the vast expanse of the gardens and the Charles V pavilion. The third area, created at the start of the 20th century on the former site of the property’s old orchard, is known as the English garden, and includes resident peacocks.

After a couple of hours spent making our way through the countless, extravagantly ornate rooms of the sumptuous palace, we especially enjoy exploring the fabulous gardens, spotting their countless fountains and generally relaxing in their relative peace.

Flamenco

El Arenal is one of Sevilles’ prestigious Flamenco venues.

Beyond its architectural masterpieces, an other multi-cultural artistic treasure of Andalusia is Flamenco – the complex fusion of song, dance and guitar music that tells the story of the Andalusian soul. The origins of Flamenco are much debated as this art form has been documented only for the past two centuries. Most of what we know has been transmitted in music and folklore. What is obvious it that it did originate in Andalusia when the area was under Moorish domination. The music and instruments were adapted over time by Christians, Jews and later Gypsies to become a hybrid form of expression to communicate their pain, oppression and passion.

El Arenal presents two nightly performances

Since the late 1960’s Flamenco has gradually evolved from local folklore to international celebrity, and Seville abounds with flamenco from bars, where the Flamenco “jam session” can be great – or not, to Tablaos.  There, nationally and internationally known artists perform professionally choreographed shows. With only one night to experience Flamenco on this trip, we go for the sure thing and book a table at Tablao el Arenal. Founded some 40 years ago by international flamenco star and Seville native Curro Veléz, it is located in a typical 17th century building that still channels the spirit of old Andalusian cafés. It has garnered a long-standing reputation for the quality of its performers, and also offers a dinner option with a fixed price, four-course, à la carte menu of Andalusian specialties prior to the 75-minute performance.

Our dinner and show advanced reservation scores us an amazing center front row table where we don’t miss a single step of the virtuoso footwork of the dancers. The show features 15 performers (guitarists, singers and dancers) and all are superb (sorry no photos allowed!). And yes, the meal is very nice too. Overall, the perfect evening to close our short visit to Seville, before leaving for Cordoba in the morning.

Good to Know

  • Getting around – The center of Seville is definitely a pedestrian experience. If like us you plan to arrive by car, jettison your vehicle in one of the underground garages at the edge of the historic center. Check  ahead with you hotel or short-term apartment management for recommendation of which parking to use.
  • Visiting –The Seville Cathedral is open for cultural visits on Monday from 11:00 am to 3:30 pm, Tuesday through Saturday from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm and Sunday from 2:30 pm to 6:00 pm. Tickets are available at the door usually with a relatively short wait.  If you also wish to visit the La Girlada (bell tower) and/or the roof of the cathedral, advanced tickets are imperative. Make sure to purchase them from the Seville Cathedral official website to avoid surcharges.
  • The Real Alcázar is open daily, October through March from 9:30 am to 6:00 pm and April through September from 9:30 through 8:00 pm. Unless you plan to visit late in the day (after all the busloads of tourists have departed) it is imperative to purchase advanced tickets – again directly from the Alcazar’s official website. A regular ticket will give you a line-free entrance to the palaces and the gardens any time during your chosen day.
  • The Royal Apartments (Cuarto Real Alto), should you decide to visit them, require that you purchase a separate ticket with a strict time-slot reservation. And be prepared to leave all your belongings, including cameras and cell phones – unless you are prepared to leave the latter turned off in you pocket – in lockers at by the entrance. Photos are strictly prohibited. The audio-guided tour takes 30 minutes, with security guards moving visitors along. Only 15 public rooms are opened to the public and although these have historic names referring to long-ago monarchs (i.e. Isabella of Castilla and Pedro I), most of the furniture and décor are from the 19th In my opinion, the visit is of little interest and not worth the constraint of adhering to the strict schedule.
  • Tablao El Arenal 7 calle Rodo, 41001, Sevilla. Contact: tel. +34 954 316 492 – open every night for from 6:00 pm to 11:30 pm with performances at 7:15 pm and 10:00 pm.  We found their dinner and show formula to be excellent value (75 Euros, or 84 U.S. Dollars per person at the time of this writing, beverages included).  Advanced reservations through their website strongly recommended.

 

Location, location, location!

Seville

Andalusia Road Trip – White Villages and Vineyards

Andalusia Road Trip – White Villages and Vineyards

Stretched across the tip of the Iberian Peninsula, Andalusia, the southern-most region of continental Spain, is a land of fascinating contrasts. Here, ancient cities dominated by grand palaces still bear the memory of their glorious Moorish past. Dazzling whitewashed Pueblos Blancos (White Villages) cling to the rugged slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountains. From flamenco to bullfighting to gazpacho, many of the cultural references that permeate visitors’ image of Spain originated here and remain woven into the fabric of everyday life.

Moorish fortresses and While Villages are sprinkled troughout the Andalusia landscape.

I never pass an opportunity to revisit this compeling region. Therefore, I was thrilled recently when my son, Lee Fuller, who had yet to discover the area, suggested that we meet there. We live on different continents these days, but once a year we make it a point to visit – each other and a different destination. With only ten days to introduce the many faces of Andalusia to him, a road trip was the best option, and destinations had to be ruthlessly curated, lest our holiday turned into a marathon.

 

Let the Adventure Begin!

The village of Mijas clings to its mountainside.

We coordinate our flights to meet at the busy Malaga airport, where we pick up our car and immediately head for the hills. Although the city has retained several Roman and Moorish landmarks, it has grown exponentially since the 1970’s into the pulsating gateway to the Costa del Sol. Here, drawn by the sundrenched beaches of the Mediterranean coast, throngs of vacationers from Northern Europe have spurred the development of sprawling concrete seaside resorts. Once picturesque fishing villages are now considered historic centers, brimming with storefront eateries, souvenir shops and guest houses. Therefore, we opt to give the shoreline a miss.

Mijas dawn.

We stay in Mijas Pueblo this first night, a short 30 minute-drive west from the airport. Once a typical whitewashed village tucked in the hills some 450 meters (1,500 feet) above sea level, it too is now a tourist haven, surrounded by gleaming white, gated resorts. But mindful of our jetlag and our newly rented vehicle, we stay in one of them, chosen mainly for the convenience of its underground garage. The next morning, however, we are rewarded with a lovely sunrise over the Mediterranean.

Dizzying Ronda

The Puente Nuevo soars high above the El Tajo Canyon.

It’s only 95 kilometers (60 miles) on a road that winds through spectacular mountain vistas between Mijas and Ronda, the largest– and most visited – of the famed White Villages of Andalusia. Dramatically perched at the edge of a sheer cliff, the town is split in half by the 150-meter (500-foot) deep El Tajo Canyon. The two sides were connected in 1793 by the Puente Nuevo (New Bridge), an engineering wonder soaring nearly 120 meters (400 feet) above the Guadalevin River.

Ronda titters on the edge of a deep chasm.

On one side, the old town (La Cuidad) is a maze of narrow lanes twisting between whitewashed buildings and palaces that reveal a rich Moorish history. The 14th century Casa del Rey Moro (House of the Moorish King) clings to the edge of the chasm. In addition to its lush gardens and spectacular views, it features a 236-step staircase cut into the rock, which goes down 60 meters (197 feet) to a platform that once held an ingenious pumping system. Today, its main attraction is its forbidding perspective of the ravine. As I start my way back up, I have a sympathetic thought for the Christian slaves who made the journey daily to fetch water.

The Birthplace of Bullfighting

The bullfighting arena features two levels of covered seating.

On the other side of the bridge, the new town (El Mercadillo) is home to the Plaza de Toro de Ronda, one of the oldest and most illustrious bullfighting arenas in Spain. Built in 1785 by the same architect who created the Puente Nuevo, it can host 5,000 spectators in its two layers of raised seating covered by a roof supported by 136 pillars. Ronda is known to be the birthplace of modern bullfighting. While historians speculate that the practice actually began in pre-Roman societies around the Mediterranean, it is Ronda native Pedro Romero (1754-1839) who perfected the craft and laid down the first rules of engagement, thus going down in history as the father of the Ronda style.

The arena includes a bullflighting museum.

Although we definitely are no supporters of bullfighting, we nonetheless appreciate our visit of the vast arena with its elaborate “backstage” passages leading to pens where bulls are housed on fight days, and tthe adjoining equestrian facility where the proud Andalusian horses are still stabled and trained. The complex also includes a small museum dedicated to the tradition.

 

 

The Plaza de Toro de Ronda can seat 5000 spectators.

Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo

Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo.

Wine has been made around Ronda since Roman times. This wine-making tradition endured through the end of the 19th century when the vineyard was devastated by the Phylloxera pest and never recovered. Until recently. The past couple of decades have seen a renewed interest in the powerful red wines of the Sierrania de Ronda, which now boasts over 20 boutique wineries. A number of them welcome visitors for tours and tastings, and traveling with the family oenophile means we must check things out.

The Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo vineyards.

A bit of research points us to Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo. Established in 2006 on a two-hectare (five-acre) plot of land of the picturesque Guadalcobacin River valley, a mere 20-minute drive north from the center of Ronda, it is a family owned and operated artisan winery. It was created and continues to be managed as a rigorously organic operation – an important point for us – by its founder Miguel Garcia Pereila, who also conducts pre-arranged personalized tours and tastings.

Miguel (right) and Lee (left) discuss wine aging in the cellar.

Since the property also features a couple of accommodation options, we have decided to stay the night. We arrive in the late afternoon to a warm welcome by Miguel and his wife Izabel and settle into our rooms before our tour of the vineyards and the wine-making operation – a visit said on the winery’s website to take approximately 45 minutes. Ours takes twice that long as we pepper Miguel with questions while he introduces us down to the smallest detail to the cultivation and care of his vines following timeless natural methods..

A Memorable Wine-tasting Experience

The patio is the heart of the Bodegas.

When we finally emerge from the aging cellar back onto the cloistered patio which is the heart of the property, the table is set for our three-course, four-wine tasting dinner. We sip on a glass of pale golden Moscatel with its citrus fruit scent and crisp, refreshing taste while Izabel brings forth the tapas. The white table cloth is soon covered with a generous spread of local Iberico ham, chorizo, coarse country paté, Manchego cheese, slices of succulent tomatoes just picked from her garden and a golden potatoe tortilla. With its basket of freshly baked earthy country bread, it looks like a meal onto itself. Miguel reappears to introduce hisf raspberry-colored Rosado. An equal blend of Syrah and Merlot, it has a lovely aroma of fresh flowers and cherries, and a definite fruity taste. Since I favor crisp, lighter wines, the Rosado turns out to be my favorite of this tasting.

The table is set for our wine-tasting.

Izabel’s paella is the best we’ve ever tasted.

As we finish polishing off the tapas, Izabel returns with her very own family-recipe paella, followed by Miguel with his Roble de Alcobazin, an intense red blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Merlot with a complex aroma of mature fruit, black currents and a hint of vanilla. We linger over our paella, sipping the rich, well rounded wine in the warm Spanish night, feeling the moment couldn’t get any better. Yet it does when Miguel returns one last time, bearing his prize-winning Zabel de Alcobazin vintage red. Yes, it is named in honor of his wife.

This blend in equal parts of select Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Merlot grapes is a deep cherry red. Aged 12 months in French and American oak barrels, then a minimum of two years in the bottle, it is clearly too complex for me. I defer to Lee, the connoisseur of full-bodied reds, to parse the “nose” of mature fruits and dark berries with a hint of butterscotch. As for the “palate”? Rich, oaky and well structured, with a big volume in the mouth – a worthy grand finale to a memorable evening.

We take our leave of our gracious hosts the next morning and head for Seville, well aware that our time at Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo will remain one of our fondest memories of this trip.

 

The Puente Nuevo affords a dizzying panoramic view of the area.

Good to Know

  • Getting there – Malaga-Costa Del Sol airport is the main international airport serving Andalusia. It accounts for 85 percent of the international traffic of the region. It is located eight kilometers (five miles) southwest of of the city.
  • Visiting Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo welcomes visitors year-round by appointment only. Consult their website for visiting, tasting, and hospitality options and reservations. Contact:  tel. (+34) 622 87 90 05. e-mail: info@bodegasgarciahidalgo.es.

Location, location, location!

Ronda

Bodegas Garcia Hidalgo

Museums in the 21st Century – Eight Must-Visits in France

Museums in the 21st Century – Eight Must-Visits in France

Throughout its history, France has been fertile ground for architectural innovation. Gothic, renaissance, baroque, neoclassical, art nouveau and art deco designers have enthusiastically put their ideas into practice – and made a lasting impression on the landscape and skyline of the country. The 21st century is no exception.

Detail of the roofline of the Pompidou Center.

Now France is seeing an explosion of dazzling contemporary architecture from some of the world’s greatest structural and landscape artists, both French and international, including Jean Nouvel, Frank Gehry, Shigeru Ban, Elizabeth de Portzamparc and more. Among their creations of public buildings, they have conceived a new crop of outstanding museums that go beyond their historic role as custodian of the cultural and artistic heritage of the country to become works of arts onto themselves.

Quai Branly Museum – Paris

The exhibit galleries emerge from the treetops.

The façade of the administrative building is vertical garden.

Inaugurated in 2006 on the left bank of the Seine, just a five-minute walk from the Eiffel Tower, the Quai Branly Museum is dedicated to indigenous arts and cultures from Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Its collections include almost 370,000 works ranging from the Neolithic period to the 20th century, only a small percentage of which are on display at any given time.

Equally remarkable for its architecture and surroundings as for its collections, the museum sits behind a translucent glass enclosure that isolates its exuberant 18,000-square meter (4.5-acre) garden from the busy riverside drive. For the main building, which houses the exhibition galleries, world-renowned French architect Jean Nouvel created a 210-meter (690-foot) long bridge, anchored at both ends with concrete silos. Its center soars 10 meters (33 feet) above the garden, held by 26 columns concealed within the garden’s mature trees, giving the impression that the building is resting on the treetops. The entire 800-square meter (8,600-square foot) façade of the adjoining administrative building is entirely concealed by a lush vegetal wall of over 150 species of plants from all over the world.

Pompidou Center – Metz

A traditional Chinese hat inspired the roofline design.

This offshoot of the Pompidou Art Center in Paris, inaugurated in 2010, was especially designed to house semi-permanent and temporary exhibits of rarely seen large-scale modern works from its parent’s large collection – the largest in Europe – of 20th and 21st century arts.

In Metz, Japanese architect Shigeru Ban created a large hexagonal structure centered around a 77-meter (253-foot) central spire, with three rectangular galleries weaving through the building at different levels. Huge picture windows angled toward various historic landmarks around the city jut through the astonishing roof styled like a Chinese hat.

Louvre – Lens

The ethereal structure blends into the pale northern sky.

The choice of placing the Louvre-Lens on a 20-hectare (50-acre) wasteland that was once a major coal-mining site in northern France is a successful example of using the decentralization of major cultural institutions to breathe new life into areas decimated the industrial shifts of the 20th century.

 

 

The reception area exudes a welcoming serenity.

Inaugurated in 2012, this satellite of Paris’ Louvre Museum is as a low, ethereal creation of glass and brushed aluminum designed by Japanese architects Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa to blend seamlessly into the flat landscape and pale skies of northern France. At its core, the 120-meter (400-foot) long Galerie du Temps (Gallery of Time) showcases 250 pieces representing five millennia of ancient and European art history. The displays are free-standing to allow viewing from all angles. The artifacts are arranged chronologically by themes to better illustrate the influence of earlier civilizations upon succeeding ones. In addition to two temporary themed exhibits per year, one-third of the semi-permanent collection is rotated back to Paris each year and replaced by different pieces.

MuCEM – Marseille

The MuCEM is wrapped in a latticed veil of concrete.

The 17th century Saint Jean Fortress has been integrated to the complex.

Inaugurated in the 2014, the Musée des Civilizations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée (or MuCEM for short) focuses on European and Mediterranean civilizations. Its permanent collection traces the historical and cultural cross-fertilization around the Mediterranean basin from antiquity to modern times.

The museum is built on reclaimed land at the entrance of the ancient port of Marseille, next to the 17th century Saint Jean Fortress, which has been integrated the project. Designed by local architect Rudy Ricciotti, the new structure is a three-story, 15,000 square meter (160,000 square foot) cube of glass and steel exhibit space wrapped in a latticed veil of fiber-reinforced concrete that also extends over the roof terrace. The grounds of the fortress, the gardens and terrace afford a panoramic view of the Bay de Marseille. From the top of the Fort, a flying footbridge leads to the edge of the historic popular hillside neighborhood of Le Panier (the basket) with and its own glorious views of the old port and waterfront.

Louis Vuitton Foundation – Paris

The glass sails give the structure its sense of movement

Designed by the famed American architect Frank Gehry and located at the edge of the Bois de Boulogne on the western side of Paris, the artistic seat of the Louis Vuitton Foundation was inaugurated in 2014. And was immediately recognized as an emblematic example of 21st century architecture.

 

The exterior stairways underneath the sails reveal views of Paris in the distance.

Constructed above a water garden created especially for the project, the building consists of an assemblage of white blocks  (“the icebergs”) clad in panels of fiber-reinforced concrete and surrounded by twelve immense inflated glass “sails” supported by wooden beams. The sails give the structure its transparency and sense of movement, as its reflection of the water and surrounding natural environment continually change with the light. As visitors move through the 11 galleries dedicated to temporary exhibitions and artisic events, they can climb exterior stairways underneath the glass sails to access the roof-top gardens, enjoying along the way stupendous views of Paris in the distance.

The City of Wine – Bordeaux

The bold golden swirl of a building evokes wine at first sight.

Visitors experience the various aromas associated with wine at the Buffet of Senses display.

More than a museum, the City of Wine is a dynamic playground for wine lovers. Open in 2016 on the west bank of the Garonne, in the old Chartrons neighborhood, the historic center of the wine trade, the bold golden swirl of a building doesn’t resemble any recognizable shape, but succeeds beautifully in suggesting wine at first sight.

Its designers, French architects Anouk Legendre and Nicholas Desmazière speak of finding inspiration in gnarled shapes of wine stock and the swirl of wine in a glass.  To me, the sensuously rounded shimmery structure clad with a mix of silkscreen-printed glass and iridescent perforated aluminum evokes the soft curves of a decanter. Inside, a self-guided tour through 20 themed spaces takes visitors on a journey of discovery of wine through time, its influence in shaping civilizations around the world, and cultures from ancient time to the present. The itinerary ends with the top floor Belvedere and an invitation to taste wines from around the world.

Lascaux IV – Montignac

The caves of Lascaux hold the most important known example of Paleolithic paintings in the world.

The cave paintings at Lascaux are twenty thousand years old. They are considered the most important known example of Paleolithic paintings in the world. Discovered in 1940 by four local boys and opened to visitors in 1948, the cave quickly became an international tourist attraction. But contact with the outside world soon began to degrade the paintings to the point where, in order to preserve it, the site had to be permanently closed to the public in 1963.

 

The unobtrusive concrete and glass structure seems little more than a natural cave in the landscape.

Now, with the opening of Lascaux IV in 2016, visitors can once again wonder at the legacy of our ancient ancestors. From a distance, the sprawling concrete and glass structure designed by Norwegian architectural studio Snøhetta seems little more that a natural cut in the landscape, unobtrusively wedged into the base of the densely forested hill containing the original cave. Once inside, using the latest advances in laser imaging and digital scanning technologies, the entire prehistoric cave and its overwhelming paintings have been cloned with perfect accuracy. Even the moist, chilly atmosphere, the muffled sounds and subdued lightings recreate the experience of the four teenagers who first stumbled upon the cave eight decades ago.

Museum of Roman Times – Nimes

The rear of the museum opens onto an archeological garden.

Facing the beautifully preserved, 2,000-year old Roman Amphitheater, the Museum of Roman Times opened in 2018 to bridge the past and the present with its ultra-modern design by Franco-Brazilian architect Elizabeth de Portzamparc. Within its rippling façade made of thousands of shimmering glass tiles intended to evoke the folds of a Roman toga, visitors are immersed into 25 centuries of history of the city and its rich collection of local artefacts. At the rear of the museum, the vast archeological garden is structured into three strata corresponding to the major periods of Nimes: Gallic, Roman and Medieval.

 

Good to Know

  • Quai Branly Museum, 37 Quai Branly, 75007 Paris. Contact: Tel. +33 (0)1 56 61 70 00. 
  • Pompidou Center – Metz,1 Parvis des Droits de l’Homme, 57020 Metz – Contact: Tel. +33 (0) 3 87 25 39 39
  • Louvre-Lens Museum, 99 Rue Paul Bert, 62300 Lens. Contact: Tel. +33 (0) 21 18 62 62
  • MuCEMPromenade Robert Laffont, 13002 Marseille. Contact: Tel. +33 (0) 4 84 35 13 13.
  • Louis Vuitton Foundation – Paris,  8 Avenue du Mahatma Gandhi, 75116 Paris. Contact: Tel. +33 (0) 4 84 35 13 13
  • The City of Wine, Esplanade de Pontac, 134 quai de Bacalan, 33300 Bordeaux. Contact: Tel. +33 (0)5 56 16 20 20
  •  Lascaux IV,  Avenue de Lascaux, 24290 Montignac. Contact: Tel. +33 (0) 5 53 50 99 10.
  • Museum of Roman Times, 16, boulevard des Arènes, 30900 Nîmes. Contact: Tel. +33 (0) 4 48 21 02 10.

A Few Souvenirs

Location, location, location!

Musee du Quai Branly

Fondation Louis Vuitton

Centre Pompidou, Metz

Louvre, Lens

MuCEM

Cite du Vin

Lascaux IV

Musee de la Romanite

Two Centuries of Stage Magic – in Moulins, France

Two Centuries of Stage Magic – in Moulins, France

Moulins is a sleepy little town few have ever heard of, much less visited, in the sparsely populated rural Auvergne region of central France. It took its name a millennium ago from the watermills that lined banks of the unruly Allier river.

B-105 Moulin Medieval Center

Medieval buildings line the narrow lanes of the historic center.

While the watermills have long since vanished, the town, doubtless due to its remote location, has hung on to its medieval heydays. Remarkably well preserved half-timbered houses (circa 15th and 16th centuries) still line the narrow cobbled lanes of its compact historic center. A gothic cathedral of the same era has retained its original stained glass windows and a bell tower, all that remains of the ancient fortifications, is topped with automated characters that still ring the bell every hour. The town is well worth a stroll, if you happen to be in the area.

 

The Enduring Magic of the Stage

But why would you be in the area – unless you missed a turn somewhere between Paris and the vineyards of Burgundy or the vibrant, history-rich city of Lyon?

B-105 - Moulins CNCS

The home of the National Center for Stage Costume was once a military barrack.

B-105-Moulin-Nureyev Collection

A dedicated wing pays homage to ballet legend Rudolf Nureyev.

Because right across the river, an imposing 18th century limestone building is now home to the National Center for Stage Costume, the first institution in France, or arguably anywhere, to be entirely dedicated to the preservation, study and display of a unique collection of stage costumes and scenography spanning the past two centuries.

The building itself was originally constructed in 1767 as barracks to house a cavalry regiment and intended to reflect the magnificence of the monarchy and its army. Today, behind its stern military façade, it has been completely restored and repurposed to house the collection of some 10,000 theatre, opera and ballet costumes from productions staged since the second half of the 19th century, provided by its three founding institutions of the Center: the National Opera of Paris, the Comédie Française and the National Library of France.

Since its inauguration in 2006, the Center has also received donations from costume designers, theatres and acting companies, as well as prominent artists and their heirs. It has most notably been entrusted by the Nureyev Foundation with over three hundred costumes and personal objects from the legendary dancer’s estate, which are now the basis of a permanent exhibition.

Remembering Rudolf Nureyev

B-105 CNCS Nureyev doublets

Nureyev introduced the doublet for all his costumes.

B-105 SNSC Nureyev productions ballerina costumes

A line-up of ballerina costumes from Nureyev’s dance partners.

Considered one of the greatest male ballet dancer of his generation, Rudolf Nureyev (1938-1993) changed the perception of the role of male dancers from merely supporting the ballerinas to taking center stage. An uncompromising perfectionist not only in his artistic performance but also in his costumes, he is credited with single-handedly changing the esthetics of the male dancer’s attire.

From his earliest years at Russia’s elite Kirov Ballet, he managed to impose changes and improvements for his own costumes, improvements which then became shared by the other dancers. He insisted on replacing the traditional breaches and “skirts” with tights that accentuated the musculature of his legs, and wearing a short doublet as the basis for all his costumes irrespective of the style of the production. Gradually the characteristics of his doublets evolved: low-cut necklines to show the neck, arm holes raised very high to free the arms. The waist appeared more tapered with the use of oblique darts at the front and the doublet often ended in a point.

 

B-105 CNCS Nureyev personal environment

The exhbition includes the artist’s favorite furnishings.

Staged in a dedicated wing, the exhibition pays homage to a life entirely devoted to dance. In addition to Nureyev’s own sumptuous doublets, it includes costumes from the ballets he choreographed and produced for the great companies of the world. A projection room features a documentary that follows him from his birth near Irkutsk, on a trans-Siberian train as his mother and three sisters were traveling to meet his Cossack father at Vladivostock, to his high profile defection to the West at the Le Bourget-Paris airport at the age of 23, through his legendary international career and his later years as the Director and Chief Choreographer of the Paris Opera Ballet.

Dressing the Opera

B-105 CNCS late 19th century opera

Early 20th century costumes for Oberon (Carl Maria von Weber).

B-105 CNCS Ballet costumes

The final gallery is dedicated to ballet costumes.

While the bulk of the Center’s collection of over 10,000 costumes and another 10,000 accessories and decor items remain mainly in the on-site reserves, choice pieces are brought out for thematic temporary exhibitions produced twice yearly. To mark the 350th anniversary of the Paris Opera, the current one “Dressing the Opera” traces the history of costume creation from the inauguration of the Palais Garnier opera house in 1875 to the present.

B-105 CNCS Palais Garnier entrance

Photographic panels and mirrors re-create the gilded atmosphere of the Palais Garnier.

Revolving around the major aesthetic trends from the late 19th, 20th and 21st centuries, it creates a grand theatrical fresco of over 150 costumes, along with stage backdrops from the Opera Garnier and the more recently opened Opera Bastille (1989). It draws from the great opera and ballet successes of the repertoire to pays tribute to the creativity of the costume designers, the expertise of the sewing workshops and the various directors who selected the artistic themes, to embody the ever-involving story of the legendary “House” as its denizen reverently call it.  

 

 

The scenography of the exhibition is worthy of its topic, recreating with wall-size photographic panels and mirrors a trompe l’oeil version of the elegant grand foyer, formal staircase and gilded atmosphere of the Palais Garnier throughout the first galleries. It then transitions to the pared down décor of the Opera Bastille, before merging the spirit of both Houses in the final gallery to showcase ballet costumes by some of the great couture designers, most notably Christian Lacroix and Karl Lagerfeld.

B-105 CNCS Contemporary opera costumes

A line-up of contemporary costumes from the Opera Bastille.

 

Good to Know

  •  Getting there – By train: there are several direct train connections between Moulins-sur-Allier and Paris (2 ½ hours) and Lyon (2 hours). From the Moulins train station, it is a pleasant 20-minute walk across town to the National Center for Stage Costume. By car: Moulins is connected to the French highway system via the A6. There is ample free parking at the museum.
  •  The National Center for Stage Costume, Quartier Villard, Route de Montilly, 03000 Moulins, is open daily. Closed December 25, January 1 and May 1. Summer opening hours are 10:00 am to 6:00 pm. Hours vary with the seasons, and are posted on the official website. Contact: tel. +33 (0) 4 70 20 76 20.

  • The exhibition “Dressing the Opera” is on display until November 3rd, 2019.

Location, location, location!

National Center for Stage Costumes